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Men Who Became Gods!

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The Mestizo Concept: A Product of European Imperialism
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HOW COLUMBUS CREATED THE CANNIBALS
Christopher Columbus - on trial
Charioteer of the Gods/ Alien Versus Predator
The International Jew
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Sacrificios Humanos entre los Mexicas, Realidad o Fantasia?
Sacrificios Humanos
Death Be Not Strange
Jack D. Forbes: Eurocentric Concepts Harm Native People and What Do We Mean By America and American
Contra la deformación histórica-cultural
Nuestra Cultura Indígena
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Myths of the Spaniards and Puritans
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"Religious Aspects of the Conquest of Mexico"
There is no word for 'Devil' in the Nahuatl Language
Origins of First Americans Research
Links to Further research On the Origins of the First Americans
The Finding and Founding of Tenochtitlan
Attack on the Copernican Theory
Of the basis which the Indians have for worshipping the sun
ADDENDUM II: The Florentine Codex
Rabinal Achi: Act Four--Inside the Fortress
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Men Who Became Gods!
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Teotecpillatolli: Noble Sacred Speech
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Cuento: La llorona
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In Blood and Fire!!
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Sun Tzu: Arte de Guerra
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We Believe and Profess
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Sixth Chapter, which telleth of the men, the valiant men
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CALIFORNIA SENATE BILL No. 670
Jose Ortega Y Gasset: On Plato's 'Republic' and On Forms of Government
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Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality
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Born Gods!
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Black Elk Speaks: Visions of the Other World
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Laws of the Great Sun and the Peace-Maker

 

A great number of years ago, there appear among us a man who came from the Sun. This man told us that he had seen from on high that we did not govern ourselves well, that we had no leadership, that each of us had presumption enough to think himself capable of governing others while he could not even conduct himself.

He told us that in order to live in peace among ourselves, that we must observe the following points:

 

  1. We must never kill anyone but in defense of our own lives.
  2. We must never know any woman besides our own.
  3. We must never take any things that belong to another.
  4. We must never lie nor get drunk.
  5. We must not be avaricious.
  6. We must give generously and with joy and share our subsistence with those who are in need of it.
  7. In all your acts, self-interest shall be cast away.
  8. Look and listen for the welfare of the whole people.
  9. And have always in view not only the present, but also the coming generations. The unborn of the future nation.

 

On Gods and the Bible:

3:5
For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.

22 Then the LORD God said, "See, the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil; and now, he might reach out his hand and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever"--

http://www.cforc.com/kjv/Genesis/3.html

 

6 I have said, Ye are gods; and all of you are children of the most High.

http://scriptures.lds.org/en/ps/82/6a

 

30
The Father and I are one."
31
The Jews again picked up rocks to stone him.
32
Jesus answered them, "I have shown you many good works from my Father. For which of these are you trying to stone me?"
33
The Jews answered him, "We are not stoning you for a good work but for blasphemy. You, a man, are making yourself God."
34
Jesus answered them, "Is it not written in your law, 'I said, "You are gods"'?
35
If it calls them gods to whom the word of God came, and scripture cannot be set aside,
36
can you say that the one whom the Father has consecrated and sent into the world blasphemes because I said, 'I am the Son of God'?
37
If I do not perform my Father's works, do not believe me;
38
but if I perform them, even if you do not believe me, believe the works, so that you may realize (and understand) that the Father is in me and I am in the Father."
39
(Then) they tried again to arrest him; but he escaped from their power.

http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/john/john10.htm

 
In defense of our spiritual values:
[Beaten but not Defeated!]
 
Our Lords, our very esteemed lords:
great hardships have you endured to
reach this land.
 
Here before you,
we ignorant people contemplate you ....
Through an interpreter we reply,
we exhale the breath and the words
of the Lord of the Close Vacinity.
Because of him we dare to do this.
For this reason we place ourselves in
danger .... 
 
Perhaps we are to be taken to our ruin,
to our destruction.
But where are we to go now?
We are ordinary people,
we are subject to death and destruction,
we are mortals;
allow us then to die,
let us perish now,
since our gods have already left us ....
 
You said that we know not
the Lord of the Close Vicinity,
to Whom the heaven and the earth
belong.
 
You said that our gods are not true gods.
New words are these that you speak;
Because of them we are disturbed,
because of them we are troubled.
For our ancestors,
before us, who lived upon the earth,
were unaccustomed to speak thus.
From them have we inherited
our pattern of life
which in truth did they hold;
In reverence they held,
they honored, our gods.
They taught us
all their rules of worship,
all their ways of honoring the gods.
Thus before them, do we prostrate
ourselves;
In their names we bleed ourselves;
Our oaths we keep,
incense we burn,
and sacrifice we offer.
 
It was the doctrine of the elders
that there is life because of the gods;
With their sacrifice, they gave us life.
In what manner?  When?  Where?
When there was still darkness.
 
It was their doctrine
that they [the gods] provide our
subsistence,
all that we eat and drink,
that which maintains life ....
 
They themselves are rich,
happy are they,
things do they possess;
So forever and ever,
things sprout and grow green in their
domain .... 
there "where somehow there is life," in
the place of Tlalocan.
There hunger is never known,
no sickness is there,
poverty there is not.
Courage and the ability to rule
they gave to the people....
 
And in what manner?  When?  Where
were the gods invoked?
Were they appealed to; were they
accepted as such;
were they held in reverence?
 
Above the world
they had founded
their kingdom.
They gave the order, the power,
glory, fame.
 
And now, are we to destroy
the ancient order of life?
of the Toltecs,
of the Acolhuas,
of the Tecpanecs? 
 
We know
on Whom life is dependent;
on Whom begetting is determined;
by Whom growth is made possible;
How it is that one must invoke,
how it is that one must pray.
 
Hear, oh Lords,
do nothing
to our people
that will bring misfortune upon them,
that will cause them to perish .... 
Calm and amiable,
consider, oh Lords, whatever is best.
We cannot be tranquil,
and yet we certainly do not believe;
We do not accept your teachings as
truth,
even though this may offend you.
 
Here are the Lords, those who rule,
those who sustain, whose duty is to
the entire world.
Is it not enough that we have already
lost,
that our way of life has been taken away,
has been annihilated.
 
Were we to remain in this place,
we could be made prisoners.
Do with us as you please.
 
This is all that we answer,
that we reply,
to your breath,
to your words,
Oh, our lords! 
 
 

The same myth told
In Tenochtitlan
Is Retold in Peru
 
 
Moctezuma clearly believes Cortes is Quetzacoatl and welcomes  him.
 
November 14, 1519 - Cortes puts Moctezuma under house arrest
June 1520 - Moctezuma killed
        June 1520 - Moctezuma replaced by Cuitlahuac (who dies shortly of smallpox) - and is replaced by Cuathemoc
 
 
In Peru:
Atahualpa Thought Pizarro the God Viracocha--who had left but promised to return
Atauhualpa taken prisoner
                        Promised gold to Spanish if released
                        Pizarro said fine and let Atauhualpa live until got gold
                        Pizarro then had Atauhualpa killed
 
 
Compare it with:
 
"On entering the palace, Cortes made his usual salutations, and said to Moctezuma: 'if you cry out, or raise any commotion, you will immediately be killed by these captains of mine, whom I have brought for this sole purpose."
 
 
Please Read:

A Case Against War Criminals

Burying the White Gods: New Perspectives on the Conquest of Mexico

AMERICANS AND EUROPEANS ON THE EVE OF ENCOUNTERS

 

Quigaltam, Natchez: The 'Great Sun' Speaks

With respect to what DeSoto said about being the 'Son of the Sun', let him dry up the great river and I will believe him!

With respect to the rest: I am not accustomed to visit anyone. On the contrary, all whom I have knowledge visit and serve me and only me and pay me tribute.

(DeSoto would never meet Quigaltam. On May 21st, 1542, he died. His body was thrown in the Mississippi river).

 

 
 
Jacques Soustelle

'Mexico today still carries the stamp of its Indian origin, the mark of those Aztecs whose language impregnates spoken Spanish, and who left enough traces of their intellectual and artistic capacities to make one look on the future of that country with confidence.'
 
 
Jacques Soustelle
The Four Suns, 1957
 
 
 
 

And they placed him in a maguey leaf, where he grew strong; /---/ when he matured, he became a priest, a keeper of the god /---/ and all obeyed him by whom they were led /---/ (FC, Book X, Ch. 29, p. 189).

Among them were «wise men» (tlamatinime) called Amoxcoaque (ibid. 190) those who carried the god on their backs (in teumamaque). They carried the writings (in tlilli, in tlapalli), the books (amoxtli), the paintings (in tlaujlolli). They carried the knowledge (qujtqujque in tlamatiliztli), they carried all (mochi qujtqujque) - the songbooks (cujcaamatl), the flutes (tlapitzalli). Then they devised the book of days (in tonalpoalli), the book of years (in xioamatl), the count of the years (xippoalli), the book of dream (in temic amatl) /---/.

 

He performed sorcery for [the god]; he was equal to, he resembled [a god]. /---/ He addressed the gods: he informed them of that which they desired. /---/

The people asked many things of the sorcerer: protection from war, sickness, famine, etc. They worshipped [sorcerers] as gods; hence they were very highly esteemed. (FC, Book X: 176-177)

[Note: Sahagun is referring to our Priests and Wise Men.  FC = Florentine Codex]


 

Man-Gods
16th c. 
 
Andrés Mixcoatl - a rainmaker who became a god.

 Martín Ocelotl - a former merchant who became a healer and a prophet.
 
17th c. 
 
Juan Coatl - a visionary healer, a shaman?
 Gregorio Juan - a therapist and prophet who became a Man- God? 
 

 
18th c. 
 
 Antonio Pérez - a former shepherd who became a healer, preacher and a God. 
 
 
 
 
Domingo Hernandez was from Tlaltizapan, a village on the right bank of the Yautepec River in Mexico.  There he built up a reputation for holiness after he received from heaven the 'virtue of healing illnesses.'  This was in the beginning of the 17th century.
 
 
When he was at death's door, two people dressed in white tunics appeared to him and took him very far from there to another place where there was a sick man, and there they blew on him.  Then they led him to another place where they found another sick man, and again they blew on him.  They then told him:
 
'Let us return to your house for they already weep for you; rest now, for after tomorrow we will return for you."
 
At that moment, as he came to, he noticed that his friends were weeping for him as if he were already dead.
 
The two people dressed in white returned three days later.  Like the first time, they took him to see the two sick men, and they blew on him just like before.  Meanwhile, they told him:
 
'Hurry if you want to see your parents, your grandparents, and the rest of your family, but if they find you, you must absolutely not answer them; otherwise you will stay with them and you will not reach the world again.'
 
Then he saw two roads, one very wide which many people took--the other narrow and steep, full of brush, rushes, and thorns.  It was, they told him, the path of our Redeemer.  He saw that few followed it, and again that many people took the broad path.  The people in white tunics ordered him to follow them, and they arrived at the houses of the prodigies, where they told him:
 
'Xitlamahuico, look, and pay attention to what you see.  Observe what happens to those who get drunk; beware, don't start your drinking again ....  (and many other things of that sort), otherwise you'll endure the same tortures.  Give up pulque immediately or in three days you'll come back here.  Now let's go to your house, for they are already weeping for you, and they should not be allowed to bury you.'
 
They then told him:
 
'Listen, you who are poor and miserable, here is what will give you food and drink in the world.'
 
They taught him the words ...  which he has used ever since to care for people, and which brought him success in his treatments, even the most hazardous ones.  Whereupon they took him back to his house.  There he came to, and noticed people weeping for him as if he were dead.
 
He then said that, this same night, three ladies magnificently dressed in white, and only in that color, came to visit him, and he reported some of the words they had exchanged.  According to him, it was the Virgin (Our Lady), Veronica and another lady whom he did not identify.  Our Lady said that Christ Our Lord had captured this sick man, and she wanted to help him. 
 
Veronica obeyed her, and wafted some air to him with a piece of fabric.  With that action he came to, and from that morning on he felt fine. 
 
 
Taken from: Aztec Sorcerers in Seventeenth Century Mexico The Treatise on Superstitions by Hernando Ruiz de Alarcon (1629)
 
 
 
 
Andres Mixcoatl's declaration before the Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition on 14 September 1537:
 
 
My name is Andres Mixcoatl. I am a Christian.  A friar baptized me at Texcoco five years ago.  I don't know his name.  I took catechism every day at Texcoco with the friars of St. Francis and their disciples, some young men in their charge.  They told us in their sermons to abandon our idols, our idolatry, our rites; to believe in God; and many other things.  I confess that, instead of practicing what they told me, for three years I have preached and maintained that the Brothers' sermons were good for nothing, that I was a god, that the Indians should sacrifice to me and return to the idols and sacrifices of the past.  During the rainy seasons, I made it rain.  That is why they presented me with paper, copal, and many other things, including property. 
 
I often preached in plain daylight at Tulancingo, Huayacocotla, Tututepec, Apan, and many other places.  It was at Tepehualco, about four years ago, that I became a god.  Since there was no rain, during the night I made magic incantations with copal and other things.  The next day it rained alot.  That is why they took me for a god.  The chichimecas executed one of their priests, claiming that he knew nothing and couldn't make it rain, I declare that when I engaged in these superstitions and magic practices, the devil spoke to me and said: "Do this, do that."  [In another place] I did the same thing .... 
 
Why do you abandon the things of the past and forget them, if the gods that you worshipped then looked after you and gave you what you needed?  You must realize that everything the Brothers say is mere lies and falsehoods.  They have brought nothing to look after you, they dont't know us, nor we them.  Did our fathers and grandfathers know these monks?  Did they see what they preach, this god they talk of?  Not at all!  On the contrary, they are tricking us.  We eat what the gods give us, it is they who feed us, shape us and give us strength.  Do we know these Brothers?  I intend to perform these sacrifices, and I am not going to abandon the habit because of these people!
 
 
 
Quoted in Serge Gruzinski
Man-Gods in the Mexican Highlands
(Gruzinski 1989: 36-37)
 
 
Texcoco, 1532: baptism of Andrés; Tepehualco, 1533: Andrés becomes a god; Tepetlaoztoc, 1534: Andrés is a god (ibid. 37).
 
Martín Ocelotl - a contemporary of Andrés Mixcoatl but with quite a different background. He became a Christian already in 1525 (Gruzinski 1989: 56). He was probably born in Chiautla, his father was a merchant and his mother had a reputation as a «sorceress» (ibid. 39). Besides his own profession as a merchant he soon extended his activities to include those of a healer and a prophet (ibid. 40). He also seems to have had a fairly good knowledge of pre-Hispanic life and thinking. Together with his preaching mostly on famine and such catastrophic events (ibid. 40), his «apocalyptic anticlericalism» as Gruzinski puts it (ibid. 42) added to his legendary reputation. He was arrested by the Inquisition in February 1537 and brought to trial in Spain where nothing is heard about his destiny there.

His contemporary Andrés Mixcoatl prophesied as follows although referring first and foremost to himself:

Let the magistrates of the Audiencia and the Law say what they will, let them accuse me of whatever they will, I did not myself go to Castile, but I do criss-cross these mountains like the deer and the rabbits [which in pre-Hispanic rhetoric means marginality, nomadic irreverence and nonconformity]. It is quite true that my messenger went to Castile. He will be back. Let us see what the Emperor ordains; and when my messenger returns, I shall begin again to teach the people. (ibid. 43)

«for the servant, for the faithful, for Andrés himself, there was nothing contradictory in the merging of Ocelotl and Mixcoatl into a single, identical man-god» (ibid. 43).

 

Without further comments I personally agree. All the more so considering similar processes of fusion in pre-Hispanic times e. g. that of Quetzalcoatl, the god and his namesake and terrestrial manifestation Quetzalcoatl Topiltzin, governor and high priest at Tollan.



17th century

Gregorio Juan

At the interrogation, February 19, 1660 Gregorio Juan presents himself as «a native of the village of San Agustín in the parish of Xicotepec. I lived with [my parents] until I was /---/ fourteen years old. Then I ran away from my father /---/» (Gruzinski 1989: 64).

Gregorio became influenced by an Indian with the name of Pedro. He tried to initiate him in his own activities presenting him to his «god» who appeared in a tent in the form of a child «whose skin was dark blue, his face white, and his hair saffron yellow» (ibid. 65).

The child said to me /---/ «this is the liquid you shall give the sick you wish to care for; whenever you need it, call me as Pedro did, and you will find me. Call upon me under the name of Goat or Star, and I shall not fail you; and when you need it, get the water ready and I shall take care of bringing you the powders.» (ibid. 66)

When Gregorio declared that he respected the priests because they were the ones who confessed, baptised and celebrated Mass, the child replied:

«Don't accept anything from them. /---/ for I am the true priest. That is why I tell you not to confess.» With these words he disappeared. Night had fallen for we had spent the whole day there. (ibid. 66)

Some time later Gregorio called for the child who gave him the prepared water «for me to care for a child named Pedro /---/ The father had asked me to look after his son, whom he had brought to my parents' house. There the potion was prepared and given to the child. Matheo, his father, had known about me because I already had a reputation in the village for looking after the sick» (ibid. 67).

 

Juan Coatl

Puebla, 1665: Testimony of a Spaniard from Huamantla in the trial of the "idolatrous" Juan Coatl.

Six years ago, an Indian named Juan Coatl ("Cloud Serpent"), of the village of San Juan Ixtenco ... told me he wanted to make me rich, as he had done for others.  To that end I was supposed to go with him to the Sierra of Tlaxcala, where he would give me a good deal of gold and silver--provided I kept a "fast" consisting of staying away from women for two days before the Ascencion.  And in the event, driven by greed and curiousity to see whether the Indian would perform bad or superstitious acts, in the company of another Spaniard I climbed that mountain with Juan Coatl.  When we got to a cabin that looked like a hermitage, the Indian lit candles and burned copal and incense in the hut.  Then leaving me there, he told me to wait and disappeared into the mountain reaches.  He returned after some time and reproached me for not having come in good faith, because I had broken the promised fast and because I had a brother in the Church.  That is why he would not give me the money I had sent him to find; that is why the master of those parts (a divine being of some kind) was incensed.  In spite of that, he would still get me quantities of things.
 
 
Seeing that the whole thing was a confidence game, I left the Indian.  Four months later, I met him and asked why he had not kept his promise to make me rich, as he'd said he had done for others.  He answered that the mountain was very angry because one of my brothers was a priest, and to calm its wrath he had gone up another mauntain called the Caldera.  There his protector had appeared to him as he slept, telling him to get up and go tell the people of Huamantla and San Juan (Ixtenco) that he had calmed down and was no longer angry with them for having revealed his story: A heavy downpour that same day would be a sign.  And if the Indian is to be believed, there really was a downpour ....  I have heard the Indians say he is believed to be a high priest, that he marries and baptizes, choosing the name according to the day of birth on a calendar he has.  He climbs to the Sierra of Tlaxcala with Indian men and women.
 
 
The truth according to the inquiry held by the ecclesiastical tribunal of the bishopric of Puebla. 
 

Either by himself or with the intervention of some of the old fiscales of San Juan (Ixtenco), he gathers candles, copal, incense, and hens ....  and he goes up to the Sierra, or mountain of Tlaxcala, where they say he has a cave beside the spring that flows to San Juan Ixtenco, by way of Canoas: Two crosses mark the spot.  At the entrance of the cave he lights candles, and inside he keeps idols, including a painted canvas representing an Indian woman with Indian youths at her feet, adoring her; another canvas delineating a figure with indigenous features, wearing a tilma (cape), with a stick in his hand; and two other paintings, one representing four snakes, and the other a large coiled serpent .... These are to be seen, along with other idols and a pile of garments offered in Juan Coatl's sanctuary....
 
 
Then he enters the cave with two other people, with lit candles and a great deal of copal.  There they spend a day and a night in adoration of the idols ... for Juan Coatl tells them these are their real gods, who give them water and good crops and all the other goods they possess, that they should believe in them and in an idol that he shows them, saying that she is their Virgin.  They must not believe in the God of the Spaniards or in the Blessed Virgin.  The times they must go "to the cave" he commands them to fast, which means abstaining from sleeping with their wives; and if by chance one of them disobeys, he treats them like "dogs who do not fast."  One of them, among others, relates what happened to him for not having abstained on that occassion: When he returned to the village with him, Juan told him that he was nothing but a "dirty dog of a drunkard" who did not come fasting.  The others were amazed at what he knew about what everyone was doing.  According to Coatl's wife, when he was about to go up the mountain he abstained the night before. 
 
 
The Indians confessed, too, that when the parish priest came to the village, Juan reprimanded the children and adults who went to see him:  Why go to the priest, since he was more that the priest, he spoke with the gods and provided for them what they needed.  And he repeated that they should not believe in [the] God [of the Spaniards but in the Gods of their ancestors]. 

[Quoted in Gruzinski Op. cit.]  

 
 
18th century
 
Antonio Pérez
 
Antonio Pérez was also called the «Shepherd» because he once kept sheep. He could be classified as a «healer» and a preacher or an «improvised sacristan» (Gruzinski 1989: 113).
 
.  .  .  .   This same man is said to have declared to one of his followers: I am God, and it is I who feed the worlds (ibid. 105).

by some he was perceived as a god: He had God in his body /---/ he had God in his chest.

To summarise Antonio Pérez's character and programme I borrow the words of Serge Gruzinski when he adduces

the stages of 'deification' of an Indian in whom a new man-god is to be recognized: the sacralisation of his relations with the faithful; the assimilation («He was like God»); the possession (of God, in his body and especially in his chest); the profession of faith («I am God»).  (ibid. 122)

 

Antonio Perez

 

Yautepec, 11 September 1761: Interrogation of Antonio Perez, the forty-year-old shepherd of the hamlet of Tlacoxcalco in the Pueblo of Ecatzingo.

 


Four years ago, when I was living on the Gomez rancho at Tecitcayac in the jurisdiction of Atlatlahucan, I accompanied a Dominican father from there to the village of Yecapixtla.  I do not know the name of the Dominican, where he comes from, or where he is.  It could well be that he was the devil.  I just remember that on the road the Dominican told me I was already damned because I drank far too much.  Then he instructed me in caring for the sick, advising me to use ... eggs, soap, milk, cooking oil, mint, or tomato skins, depending on the nature of the illness. He taught me cures for everything, including terrible toothaches, one of which consisted of making vapors by selecting six tesontles (volcanic rocks) of the same size and sprinkling them with water in which rue and attemisia had been cooked.  Then they had to be taken and placed seperately between the patient's legs.

 

For all my treatments I recite the Credo as the holy church teaches it, and I add these words: "In the name of the most holy Trinity, of the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. Amen."  I put my trust first in God and only then in the herbs.  When he is on his way to recovery, the sick man recites the act of contrition.  I do all that because the Dominican friar told me to.  That is how I cured Magdalena from Tetelcingo of typhoid fever, my wife Ana Maria of stomach pain, a certain Domingo, whose name and pueblo I do not know, of a leg wound ....

 

For six reales I bought from a painter named Bentura a very old painting, half an ell in size, which represented Christ.  I kept it at my house and had it carefully cleaned.  Many people came to offer him flowers and tapers.  That is why Don Jacinto Valera, the priest of Atlatlahucan, had arrested me.

 

Afterward he freed me so that I would take him to my place and give him the holy Christ.  As I was getting ready to do so, all of a sudden I found myself with my painting in a cave at the bottom of a ravine that runs along one side of Atlatlahucan.  I had been carried there through the air, without knowing by whom, and I stayed in the cave for a moment before going to Chimalhuacan, where I gave the painting in question to the priest, who had it put under glass in his church.  But since I accepted offerings of candles and money, the priest reprimanded me and put me out of the church.

 

Eight days later, in a place named Zabaleta, I met Dieguino [a barefoot Franciscan], who asked me to go with him to Puebla.  I agreed, and all of a sudden found myself in the middle of the volcano, at the friar's side. The Dieguino told me not to be sad about the Holy Christ they had taken from me, because he would give me another, and in fact he gave me a head which seemed to be of glass, ordering me to make a body of cypress for it.  I succeeded, with the help of a painter whose name I do not know, and I gave it the name of Santo Entierro [Christ of the Entombment].  I lit tapers before that Christ, recited some Credos and "Glory be."  At the time of my arrest, I had that image at my house, and I do not know where it is now.

 

The same friar told me that in the volcano I would find a rainbow, and under the rainbow the Virgin; and that thereafter two new sources of water would appear at Chimalhuacan.

 

At the time, I disregarded his prediction and remained silent for a year and a half. 

 

Although the image was not brought to the church, I did take it to the cave in the company of five people from Ecatzingo: my son Matheo, his brother Felipe, Maria, Theresa, Diego, and twenty-five others from Izamatitlan, among whom were the fiscal Pedre, Pasqual de Santa Maria, and others whose name escape me.  When we got there, I discovered all the instruments of the passion in a hole; they were made of terra-cota, and I took them home.  Pasqual de Santa Maria took the Virgin to his place, and we recited the rosary before her, and the "Glory be"; we danced and played music.  That is what we were doing when the priest came in to arrest us.

 

[Quoted in Gruzinski Op. cit.] 

 
 
Our Heroes and Important People in our Racial Community.  People in our community who became Gods:  VICTORY TO THEIR AWAKENING!! 
 
Jacinto Pat
He was a member of a family whose reputation for many years was that of utmost importance, thus a prominent figure in the Mayan elite. He started the rebellion in 1847 in co-operation with other prominent Mayas, including Cecilio Chi from Tepich. He led the southern half of the revolutionary armies and he was appointed «Gouveneur» for the Indians of Yucatán -(Mossbrucker 1993: 43, 45, 53)
 
 
Cecilio Chi
both Chi and Pat were imprisoned in 1839 just when Chi had been nominated batab of Tepich, which indicates a middle position in the ranking Mayan society (Rugeley 1997: 45).
 
It was said that
the war erupted when Cecilio Chi discovered his daughter reduced to concubinage by the local minister! /---/ However, this popular story, like much of oral tradition, probably uses personalistic narratives to symbolise broader social pressures. (Rugeley 1997: 61 note 98)
 
 
Manuel Antonio Ay
Manuel Antonio Ay is from a later part of the Caste War.

As a witness to his importance and his place in the people's memory one may draw the attention to the words on the commemorating monument in his home town Chichimila: (Rugeley 1997: 51)

MANUEL ANTONIO AY

Protomartir de la Revolución Maya de 1847-1975.

 

Emiliano Zapata: As El Tepozteco

The Tepoztecan children are taught about El Tepozteco thus:

Tepozteco cannot be known; his house is on the hill near El Parque. There he has his house and everything which he needs in his home, but he himself does not appear. He always lives far off among the clouds. He has a mother who is in the church. We say Mass for his mother. His mother is named Tonantzin [Our revered little Mother] and also Natividad. - When they don't give him a good celebration on the eighth of September he sends a great wind; when the celebration is a good one then he does nothing, he is content. Tepozteco is a god who is loveable and cruel. He has only one punishment for the village. /---/ he takes away the water. (Lewis 1963: 276)

Zapata was not illiterate - he fought for «land and liberty» leading his peasant army of around 30.000 men when most, first against the dictator Díaz, and then against traitors and usurpators who did not live up to the motto for his revolutionary program presented in the Plan of Ayala «Libertad, Justicia y Ley», 25th of November 1911. (Silva Herzog 1960, I: 240-45; cf. Blanco Moheno 1973 (1970): 116 ff.)

The Zapatistas had set up their camp near the mountain El Cerro del Jilguero. They were surrounded there by the troops of the Carrancistas

with no means of escape. /---/ And though he [Zapata] knew he was going to lose, his spirit did not fail him.

«Follow me,» Zapata said, «Until the last cartridge is gone! If they kill me, go away. /---/ And if you do not want to follow me, go up to the highlands and abandon me. Here is enough money for you to live on the road. /---/»

When his soldiers went away to the highlands, they left Zapata alone at the Cerro del Jilguero. It is said that a trap was set for him. A general by the name of Amaro was the one who betrayed Zapata. «I have come to join you,» he said. «I am no longer with Carranza! I am with Zapata now!»

Zapata trusted him. He believed Amaro, who joined the army as if he had been one of Zapata's soldiers. It was then that Amaro killed Zapata. (Horcasitas 1972: 175 ff.)

He was the first to coin the motto «Men of the south, it is better to die standing than live down on your knees». His main revolutionary goal was «Land to the landless» (Bamford Parkes 1940: 350). The semicircular wall that protects the ruins of his home in Anenecuilco bears the famous words «The land belongs to him, who works it!» There I was told by an old guide that the Mexican government, i.e. the PRI in reality, wants to move Zapata's body from his grave in Cuautla in order to solemnly bury him under the Revolutionary Monument in Mexico City but the family refused. Not until the goal of the Mexican Revolution is fulfilled, its greatest hero will remain where he is now.

Both goddesses were called by their adherents Tonantzin 'Our Revered (Little) Mother', an epithet applied also to other mother goddesses and tantamount to the Spanish «Madrecita», i.e. the Virgin Mary (cf. Schultze-Jena 1957: 408 ff). In December 1531 she appeared to the baptised Indian Juan Diego on the hill of Tepeyac, the very place of a former shrine dedicated to a goddess called «Tonantzin». As «Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe» the Holy Virgin is worshipped not only by the Mexicans. Millions of catholic pilgrims from all parts of the world assemble to pay their reverence to the Mother of Christ, whether actually believing or not in her miraculous image on Juan Diego's tilma (cloak) at her altar. (Hellbom, 1964: 58-72). María may not be a «true goddess» however holy. She is the mother of the Son of man.

 

 
 
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