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Germs, Plagues, Famine, Invasion, Friars, And Native Allies!

Home
Cultural Extremists
On the 'Nican Tlaca' Enigma
The Myth of the Vanishing Race
The Mestizo Concept: A Product of European Imperialism
El concepto de indio en América
OBITUARIES: G. Tantaquidgeon, 106
HOW COLUMBUS CREATED THE CANNIBALS
Christopher Columbus - on trial
Charioteer of the Gods/ Alien Versus Predator
The International Jew
On The Jewish Question
Anthropophagy: TRUE CANNIBALISM!
On Human Sacrifice
Sacrificios Humanos entre los Mexicas, Realidad o Fantasia?
Sacrificios Humanos
Death Be Not Strange
Jack D. Forbes: Eurocentric Concepts Harm Native People and What Do We Mean By America and American
Contra la deformación histórica-cultural
Nuestra Cultura Indígena
On the Spanish Catholic Inquisition
Myths of the Spaniards and Puritans
On the behavior of the Europeans toward the Native Americans
The Role of Disease in 'Conquest'
Germs, Plagues, Famine, Invasion, Friars, And Native Allies!
"Religious Aspects of the Conquest of Mexico"
There is no word for 'Devil' in the Nahuatl Language
Origins of First Americans Research
Links to Further research On the Origins of the First Americans
The Finding and Founding of Tenochtitlan
Attack on the Copernican Theory
Of the basis which the Indians have for worshipping the sun
ADDENDUM II: The Florentine Codex
Rabinal Achi: Act Four--Inside the Fortress
Cultural Visibility and the Cora
Los Voladores and the Return of the Ancestors
War Songs of the Tenochka
Cantares Mexicanos
Viva Mi General Francisco Villa!
In Spirit of Agustin Lorenzo
Corridos y Canciones del Pueblo
Teotecpillatolli
Poems & Speeches & Prayers & the Enemy Invasion
Second Chapter, Which Telleth of the Moon
Men Who Became Gods!
The Mexica or Mexiti
POPUL VUH
EL TLACUACHE Y EL COYOTE
In Ixiptla In Teteo!
Teotecpillatolli: Noble Sacred Speech
Nahua Invocations
Cuento: La llorona
Curatives
Puerta del Diablo: El Salvador
Moctezuma el Magnifico y la Invasion de Anahuak
In Blood and Fire!!
Rules
Excerpts of the Geneva Protocols
Amendment V, and The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 18
Paper Wars
The Defense of Duffer's Drift
The Battle of the Bulge
Truth and Falsehood in War-Time
The Bryce Report
Sun Tzu: Arte de Guerra
Sun Tzu: On Spies
We Believe and Profess
Mushashi: Cinco Anillos
Sixth Chapter, which telleth of the men, the valiant men
Seeds of Revolt in the Americas: Synopsis
'Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders' & 'License To Kill'
CALIFORNIA SENATE BILL No. 670
Jose Ortega Y Gasset: On Plato's 'Republic' and On Forms of Government
Thomas Paine (17371809). Common Sense. 1776 [Excerpts]
Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality
Introduction to Deloria's "We Talk, You Listen"
My Tayta Jose Maria and the Indian aspect of the Peruvian Revolution
TO THE SUNDANCE NATIONS OF THE GREAT PLAINS
Philip Deere, Longest Walk speech
Bacbi'awak: 'Made To Die'
Born Gods!
Prologue: "The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Life-ways"
Black Elk Speaks: Visions of the Other World
Miantinomo, Acuera, and Tecumseh, Hatuey Speaks
Chief Seattle Speaks
Chief Red Cloud Speaks
Hopi: A Message for All People
On Judeo-Christianity
"LET'S MAKE A SLAVE" by Willie Lynch
On Slavery
On Indian Casinos
Protocols
¿Quién Gobierna el Mundo?
Frida Kahlo is Not Our Hero!
Links to Movies and Films
General Links to Musica del Pueblo (Songs and Music Videos)
General Philosophy & Mytho-Religious Links
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LINKS: AMERICA INDIGENA / MEXICO INDIGENA
LINKS to Political and Cultural Pro-American-Indigenous Organizations

Germs, Plagues, Famine,
 
The Plague Ravages the City

While the Spaniards were in Tlaxcala, a great plague broke out here
in Tenochtitlan. It began to spread during the thirteenth month and
lasted for seventy days, striking every where in the city and killing
a vast number of our people. Sores erupted on our faces, our breasts,
our bellies; we were covered with agonizing sores from head to foot.

The illness was so dreadful that no one could walk or move. The sick
were so utterly helpless that they could only lie on their beds like
corpses, unable to move their limbs or even their heads. They could
not lie face down or roll from one side to the other. If they did
move their bodies, they screamed with pain.

A great many died from this plague, and many others died of hunger.
hey could not getup to search for food, and everyone else was too
sick to care for them, so they starved to death in their beds.

Some people came down with a milder form of the disease; they
suffered less than the others and made a good recovery. But they
could not escape entirely. Their looks were ravaged, for wherever a
sore broke out, it gouged an ugly pockmark in the skin. And a few of
the survivors were left completely blind.

The first cases were reported in Cuatlan. By the time the danger was
recognized, the plague was so well established that nothing could
halt it, and eventually it spread all the way to Chalco. Then its
virulence diminished considerably, though there were isolated cases
for many months after. The first victims were stricken during the
fiesta of Teotlecco and the faces of our warriors were not clean and
free of sores until the fiesta of Panquetzaliztli.
 
-----------------------------
 
Our cries of grief rise up
and our tears rain down,
for Tlatelolco is lost.
The Aztecs are fleeing across the lake;
they are running away like women.

How can we save our homes, my people?
The Aztecs are deserting the city:
the city is in flames, and all
is darkness and destruction.

Motelchiuhtzin the Huiznahuacatl,
Tlacotzin the Tlailotlacatl,
Oquitzin the Tlacatecuhtli
are greeted with tears.

Weep, my people:
know that with these disasters
we have lost the Mexican nation.
The water has turned bitter,
our food is bitter!
These are the acts of the Giver of Life. . .
 
 
 

Invasion:
 

JUSTIFICACIÓN DE LA CONQUISTA Y
DOMINACIÓN DE LOS INDÍGENAS AMERICANOS

Por Oswaldo Albornoz Peralta

http://www.uv.es/~pla/solidaritat/justconq.htm

De larga vida la tal tesis, llega a América con la espada de los conquistadores y la cruz de los misioneros. Y aquí, en algunos casos, se radicaliza hasta el extremo de sostener que los indios americanos carecen de alma y no pertenecen a la especie humana. El Papa, para no amenguar la labor evangelizadora, tiene que intervenir y decir que sí tienen alma y que, por tanto, son hombres. Pablo III, en su bula Sublimis Deus –1537– tiene que declarar esto:

Nos, que aunque indignos, ejercemos en la tierra el poder de Nuestro Señor… consideramos sin embargo que los indios son verdaderos hombres y que no solo son capaces de entender la fe católica, sino que, de acuerdo con nuestras informaciones, se hallan deseosos de recibirla. (1)

Pero si bien la bula aludida saca de la animalidad al indígena, no por eso se libra de la inferioridad, calidad indispensable para justificar la conquista. Así el dominico Francisco de Vitoria, uno de los que sostienen que es justa causa de guerra la oposición de los bárbaros a la propagación del Evangelio, dice esto sobre los indios:

 

Esos bárbaros, aunque, como se ha dicho, no sean del todo incapaces, distan, sin embargo, tan poco de los retrasados mentales que parece no son idóneos para constituir y administrar una república legítima dentro de los límites humanos y políticos. Por lo cual no tienen leyes adecuadas, ni magistrados, ni siquiera son suficientemente capaces para gobernar la familia. Hasta carecen de ciencias y artes, no sólo liberales sino también mecánicas, y de una agricultura diligente, de artesanías y de otras muchas comodidades que son hasta necesarias para la vida humana. (2)

Más radical y menos dubitativo es el famoso fray Ginés de Sepúlveda. En su Tratado sobre las justas causas de la guerra contra los indios no se cansa de buscar motivos para justificar el sometimiento de los indígenas americanos, para lo cual acumula sobre ellos, junto con la consabida falta de razón, una serie de vicios y defectos. Y para su condena a los que llama hombrecillos con apenas vestigios de humanidad se basa, no sólo en Aristóteles, sino en San Agustín, Santo Tomás de Aquino y algunos pasajes bíblicos. Oídle:

Con perfecto derecho los españoles ejercen su dominio sobre estos bárbaros del Nuevo Mundo e islas adyacentes, los cuales en prudencia, ingenio y todo género de virtudes y humanos sentimientos son tan inferiores a los españoles como los niños a los adultos, las mujeres a los varones, como gentes crueles e inhumanos a muy mansos, exageradamente intemperantes a continentes y moderados, finalmente, estoy por decir cuanto los monos a los hombres.

La justa guerra es causa de la justa esclavitud, la cual contraída por el derecho de gentes, lleva consigo la pérdida de la libertad y de los bienes. (3)

Otro religioso, el dominico Tomás Ortiz, envía al Consejo de Indias una larguísima diatriba contra los indios caribes, donde constan los dos pequeños párrafos que copiamos a continuación:

Los hombres de tierra firme de Indias comen carne humana, y son sodomíticos más que ninguna otra generación. Ninguna justicia hay entre ellos, andan desnudos, no tienen amor ni vergüenza, son como asnos, abobados, alocados, insensatos; no tienen en nada matarse ni matar…

Cuando más crecen se hacen peores; hasta los diez o doce años parecen que han de salir con alguna crianza; pero de allí en adelante se vuelven como brutos animales; en fin, digo que nunca crió Dios tan cocida gente en vicios y bestialidades, sin mezcla de bondad o cortesía. (8)

Entre las varias acusaciones a los indígenas de América, únicamente citaremos esta, referente a los indios de la Isla Española:

Facilísimamente se juntan con las mujeres, y aun como cuervos o víboras, y peor; dejando aparte que son grandísimos sodomitas, holgazanes, mentirosos, ingratos, mudables y ruines. (11)

Para leer el articulo, click: http://www.uv.es/~pla/solidaritat/justconq.htm

----------------------------------

Slaughter of the Innocents:

Our people describe the beginning of the terrible slaughter
perpetrated by Pedro de Alvarado in the patio of the main temple in
Tenochtitlan. After mentioning the first rituals of the fiesta that
was being celebrated-a fiesta in which "song was linked to song"-
they tell how the Spaniards entered the sacred patio:

"They ran in among the dancers, forcing their way to the place where
the drums were played. They attacked the man who was drumming and cut
off his arms. Then they cut off his head, and it rolled across the
floor.

They attacked all the celebrants, stabbing them, spearing them,
striking them with their swords. They attacked some of them from
behind, and these fell instantly to the ground with their entrails
hanging out. Others they beheaded: they cut off their heads, or split
their heads to pieces.

They struck others in the shoulders, and their arms were torn from
their bodies. They wounded some in the thigh and some in the calf.
They slashed others in the abdomen, and their entrails all spilled to
the ground. Some attempted to run away, but their intestines dragged
as they ran; they seemed to tangle their feet in their own entrails.

No matter how they tried to save themselves, they could find no
escape."

----------------------------------

 

The Massacre in the Main Temple During the Fiesta of Toxcatl

The Spaniards Attack the Celebrants


At this moment in the fiesta, when the dance was loveliest and when
song was linked to song, the Spaniards were seized with an urge to
kill the celebrants. They all ran forward, armed as if for battle.
They closed the entrances and passageways, all the gates of the
patio: the Eagle Gate in the lesser palace, the Gate of the Canestalk
and the Gate of the serpent of mirrors.

They posted guards so that no one could escape, and then rushed into
the Sacred Patio to slaughter the celebrants. They came on foot,
carrying their swords and their wooden or metal shields

They ran in among the dancers, forcing their way to the place where
the drums were played. They attacked the man who was drumming and cut
off his arms. Then they cut off his head, and it rolled across the
floor.

They attacked all the celebrants, stabbing them, spearing them,
striking them with their swords. They attacked some of them from
behind, and these fell instantly to the ground with their entrails
hanging out. Others they beheaded: they cut off their heads, or split
their heads to pieces.

They struck others in the shoulders, and their arms were torn from
their bodies. They wounded some in the thigh and some in the calf.
They slashed others in the abdomen, and their entrails all spilled to
the ground. Some attempted to run away, but their intestines dragged
as they ran; they seemed to tangle their feet in their own entrails.
No matter how they tried to save themselves, they could find no
escape.

Some attempted to force their way out, but the Spaniards murdered
them at the gates. Others climbed the walls, but they could not save
themselves. Those who ran into the communal houses were safe there
for a while; so were those who lay down among the victims and
pretended to be dead. But if they stood up again, the Spaniards saw
them and killed them.

The blood of the warriors flowed like water and gathered into pools.
The pools widened, and the stench of blood and entrails filled the
air. The Spaniards ran into the communal houses to kill those who
were hiding. They ran everywhere and searched everywhere; they
invaded every room, hunting and killing.

...

The Mexica woman cries out: "Mexicanos, come running' They are
crossing the canal! Our enemies are escaping!"


The Priest of Huitzilopochtli calls out: "Captains, warriors,
Mexicanos! Our enemies are escaping! Follow them in your boats. Cut
them off, and destroy them!

---------------------------------------------------

"Mexicanos, now is the time! "


Warriors of Anahuak, now is the time! Who are these barbarians? Let
them come ahead!

The Aztecs took their prisoners to Yacacolco, hurrying them along the
road under the strictest guard. Some of the captives were weeping,
some were keening, and others were beating their palms against their
mouths.

When they arrived in Yacacolco, they were lined up in long rows. The
Spaniards went first, then their allies, and all were put to death.

As soon as the Mexica executed the Spaniards, the Aztecs ranged the
Spaniards' heads in rows on pikes. They also lined up their horses'
heads. They placed the horses' heads at the bottom and the heads of
the Spaniards above, and arranged them all so that the faces were
toward the sun. However, they did not display any of the allies'
heads. All told, fifty-three Spaniards and four horses were
sacrificed there in Yacacolco.

The fighting continued in many different places. At one point, the
allies from Xochimilco surrounded us in their canoes, and the toll of
the dead and captured was heavy on both sides.

-------------------------------------------

Gritan sus jefes, sus principales y dicen:

-Señores nuestros, mexicanos, tlatelolcas . . .

Un poco nos queda . . . No hacemos más que guardar nuestras
casas.

No se han de adueñar de los almacenes, del producto de nuestra
tierra.

Aquí está vuestro sustento, el sostén de la vida, el maíz.



***

No os desaniméis, no perdáis el espíritu. ¿A dónde hemos de ir?

¡Mexicanos somos, tlatelolcas somos!

***


Mexicanos,
-¿No más estáis allí parados? . . . ¿No os da vergüenza? ¡No habrá
mujer que en tiempo alguno se pinte la cara para vosotros! . . .


Acaso no sois Mexicanos?

 

...

Warriors of Tenochtitlan, come here! Your enemies are here! "

"Mexicanos, come here and join us! Who are these savages? A mere
rabble from the south!"'

Friars:
 
Sahagun on Tezcatlipoca:
 
We know in times past, everywhere here in New Spain, Tezcatlipoca
was worshipped. They also named him Titlacauan, and Yaotl, Necoc
Yaotl, Moyocoya, Necaualpilli. This Tezcatlipoca, the ancients said,
was a true god; his abode was everywhere—in the land of the dead, on
earth, in heaven. When he walked upon the earth he quickened war; he
quickened vice, filth; he brought anguish, affliction to men; he
brought discord among men; wherefore he was called "the enemy on
both sides." He mocked men; he ridiculed men. He was called wind,
shadow. This wicked Tezcatlipoca, we know, is Lucifer, the great
devil who there in the midst of Heaven, even in the beginning, began
war, vice, filth. From there he was cast out, from there he fell.
But he walked here upon earth deceiving men, tricking men. This
Tezcatlipoca Titlacauan is a great devil. The ancients worshipped
him, and they celebrated his feast day in the month of Toxcatl, and
they slew his representation, whom they named Titlacauan. So much
were the ancients in confusion.
 
-------------------------
From the Spanish Chronicles of Bishop Diego de Landa

The Indians sadly received the yoke of slavery. And although the
Spaniards had the country well divided and under control, the
Indians were not lacking for trouble makers who tried to incite
them, resulting in cruel chastisements which caused, in turn, a
decrease in the native population. They burned alive some principal
lords in Copal province and hanged others. A charge was levied
against Yobain, the town of the Chels, and they seized the leaders
and put them in chains in a house and set it afire, burning them
with the greatest inhumanity in the world.

And I, Diego de Landa, saw a tree near this town on which the
captain hanged many Indian women from the branches and hanged their
children by the feet. And in this same town and in another called
Verey, two leagues from there, they hanged two Indian women, one a
virgin, and the other newly-married, for no other crime than that
they were beautiful and feared that the Spanish camp would be
disturbed by them. By doing this they showed the Indians that the
Spaniards were not interested in their women. These two are not
forgotten, neither by the Indians nor the Spanish, but are
remembered still for their great beauty and for the cruel way in
which they were killed.

And when the Indians in the provinces of Cochua and the Chetumal
revolted, the Spaniards put down the rebellion in such a way that
these provinces, once the most thickly settled, became the least
populated of any in the country. They committed unheard-of
cruelties, cutting off hands, noses, arms and legs, cutting off the
breasts of women and throwing the women themselves into deep lagoons
with gourds tied to their feet. And they stabbed the little
children because they could not walk as fast as their mothers. And
if those who walked chained together by the neck became ill, or
didn't move as fast as the others, they cut off their heads so that
they would not have to stop and unchain them. The great number of
women captives in the procession were treated the same way as the
men.



* * *

If it was the devil who put together this compilation of the Katuns,
he did it, as usual, to glorify himself, or if it was a man, he must
have been a great idolator because with these Katuns he added to all
the principal tricks and omens and deceptions by which these people,
in their miseries, were totally deceived. And although this was the
science to which they gave the most credit and credence, not even
all the priests knew how to interpret it . . . We found a large
number of these books of characters, but since they contained
nothing but superstition and lies of the devil, WE BURNED THEM ALL
WHICH CAUSED THEM TREMENDOUS ANGUISH AND PAIN.


From Diego de Landa, "Relacion de las Cosas de Yucatan," c. 1566,

 

[Here] beginneth the appendix to Book I, in which the idolatry
described above is refuted by means of sacred scriptural texts
translated into the Mexican tongue, the texts sufficiently explained.

Prologue

Ye who are natives in New Spain, ye Mexicans, ye Tlaxcalans, ye
Cholulans, ye Michoaca, and all ye who are vassals dwelling in the
land of the Indies—

Very great was the darkness and the confusion, the unbelief, the
idolatry in which your fathers, your grandfathers, your great-
grandfathers left you, as is evident in your ancient scriptures.

Hear and understand well. For now our Lord, God, hath willed, hath
accorded, hath sent to you the brightness, the torch, the light to
reveal the true God, the Creator Who seeth over all His creation.

And confusion, in which you have lived in all past time, came to
you. It has misled and deluded you. But by means of the
brightness, the light, you may attain true faith.

And thus you may accept, you may hear the word of God, here written,
which he, your lord, the King of Spain, hath sent you, as well as
God's Vicar, the Holy Father, who dwelleth in Rome.

And for this reason they have caused this to be done, that you may
escape the hands of the devils, and that you may attain the Kingdom
of Heaven.

Taken From:

Appendix of the First Book: Whereby Idolatry is Refuted by means of
the Sacred Scriptures; written in the tongue of the Mexicans:
declaring the sufficient texts.

Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain by Fray
Bernandino de Sahagun. Translated from the Aztec into English, with
notes and illustrations (second edition, revised) by

Anderson, A. J. O; Dibble, C. E. (in thirteenth parts)


translation by Christopher Sawyer-Laucanno.
 
*************************************
 

Letter of the Council of Huejotzingo to King Philip II, 1560

Our Lord sovereign, you the king don Felipe....

Although the people who are called and named
Tlaxcalans indeed helped, yet we strongly pressed them to give aid,
and we admonished them not to make war; but though we so admonished
them, they made war and fought for fifteen days. But we, when a
Spaniard was afflicted, without fail at once we managed to reach
him.... We do not lie in this, for all the conquerors know it well,
those who have died and some now living.

And when they began their conquest and war-making, then also we
prepared ourselves well to aid them, for out came all of our war
gear, our arms and provisions and all our equipment, and we not
merely named someone, we went in person, we who rule, and we brought
all our nobles and all of our vassals to aid the Spaniards. We helped
not only in warfare, but we also gave them everything they needed; we
fed and clothed them, and we would carry in our arms and on our backs
those whom they wounded in war or who were very ill, and we did all
the tasks in preparing for war. And so that they could fight the
Mexica with boats, we worked hard; we gave them the wood and pitch
with which the Spaniards made the boats. And when they conquered the
Mexica and all belonging to them, we never abandoned them or left
them behind in it. And when they went to conquer Michoacan, Jalisco,
and Colhuacan, and there at Panuco and there at Oaxaca and
Tchuantepec and Guatemala, [we were] the only ones who went along
while they conquered and made war here in New Spain until they
finished the conquest; we never abandoned them, in no way did we
prejudice their war- making, though some of us were destroyed in it
[there was no one as deserving as we], for we did our duty very well.
But as to those Tlaxcalans, several of their nobles were hanged for
making war poorly; in many places they ran away, and often did badly
in the war. In this we do not lie, for the conquerors know it well.

Our lord sovereign, we also say and declare before you that your
fathers the twelve sons of St. Francis reached us, whom the very high
priestly ruler the Holy Father sent and whom you sent, both taking
pity on us so that they came to teach us the gospel, to teach us the
holy Catholic faith and belief, to make us acquainted with the single
deity God our Lord, and likewise God favored us and enlightened us,
us of Huejotzingo, who dwell in your city, so that we gladly received
them

...

An Eighteenth- Century Nahua Testimony

The text asserts that in 1531 their chief had taken possession of
their communal lands.

...

It is obvious how they punish the revered lords of the towns, those
who were in charge of the people, who had the rod [symbol of
authority]; it is clear how they are put in prison, because the men
of Castile are not satisfied with what they are given, and [they] do
not surrender their gold nor their precious stones.

It is well known how they jeer at our revered women and daughters.
They are not quiet, except solely with gold and precious stones. They
make fun of the wives of those who ruled. They are not quiet but when
they burn the others, as they burned alive the greatly revered lord
of Michoacan, the great Caltzontzin. Thus they behaved with other
great lords who were in charge, who ruled there in Xalapan,
TlaxcaIan, Tecuantepec, Oaxyacac, and [other] towns and chiefdoms
where the envious, gold-hungry Christians also entered.... How much
blood was shed! It was our fathers' blood! And what for? Why was it
done? Learn it once and for all: because they want to impose
themselves upon us, because they are utterly gold hungry, voracious
of what belongs to others: our chiefdoms, our revered women and
daughters, and our lands.

It is known that the Castilian Cortes, the recently named Marques del
Valle, was authorized, there in Castile, to come to distribute our
lands. Thus it is said ... that secretly the lord Marques will come
to take our lands, take possession of ourselves and establish new
towns. And where will they throw us? Where will they place us? A very
great sadness afflicts us. What will we do, my sons?

Still my heart recovers. I [i.e., the supposed founder of the city]
remember, I will establish a town here ... on the slopes of Axochco
mountain, in Xaltipac [On the Sand's Surface]. Because from down
there to here is the place of the men of Axochco. From down there on,
this land is ours, it was left to us by our grandfathers, it was
their property since ancient times.

 

And Native Allies!
 
 

Then the great captain Tzilacatzin arrived, bringing with him three
large, round stones of the kind used for building walls. He carried
one of them in his hand; the other two hung from his shield. When he
hurled these stones at the Spaniards, they turned and fled the city.

Tzilacatzin's military rank was that of Otomi, and he clipped his
hair in the style of the Otomies." He scorned his enemies, Spaniards
as well as Indians; they all shook with terror at the mere sight of
him.

When the Spaniards found out how dangerous he was, they tried
desperately to kill him. They attacked him with their swords and
spears, fired at him with their crossbows and arquebuses, and tried
every other means they could think of to kill or cripple him.
Therefore he wore various disguises to prevent them from recognizing
him.

Sometimes he wore his lip plug, his gold earrings and all the rest of
his full regalia, but left his head uncovered to show that he was an
Otomi. At other times he wore only his cotton armor, with a thin
kerchief wrapped around his head. At still other times, he put on the
finery of the priests who cast the victims into the fire: " a plumed
headdress with the eagle symbol on its crest, and gleaming gold
bracelets on both arms, and circular bands of gleaming gold on both
ankles.

The Spaniards came back again the next day. They brought their ships
to a point just off Nonohualco, close to the place called the House
of Mist. Their other troops arrived on foot, along with the
Tlaxcaltecas. As soon as they had formed ranks, they charged the
Aztec warriors.

The heaviest fighting began when they entered Nonohualco. None of our
enemies and none of our own warriors escaped harm. Everyone was
wounded, and the toll of the dead was grievous on both sides. The
struggle continued all day and all night.

Only three captains never retreated. They were contemptuous of their
enemies and gave no thought whatever to their own safety. The first
of these heroes was Tzoyectzin; the second, Temoctzin; and the third,
the great Tzilacatzin.

At last the Spaniards were too exhausted to keep on fighting. After
one final attempt to break the Aztec ranks, they withdrew to their
camp to rest and recover, with their allies trailing behind.


http://www.ambergriscaye.com/pages/mayan/aztec.html

 
--------------------------------------------------------------------
 
The Quetzal-Owl

Cuauhtemoc consulted with a group of his captains and then called in
a great captain named Opochtzin, who was a dyer by trade. They
dressed him in the finery of the Quetzal owl, which had belonged to
King Ahuitzotl. Then Cuauhtemoc said to him: "This regalia belonged
to my father, the great warrior Ahuitzotl. Terrify our enemies with
it. Annihilate our enemies with it. Let them behold it and tremble."


The captain Tlacotzin said: "Mexicanos, the power of Huitzilopochtli
resides in this finery. Loose the sacred arrow at our enemies, for it
is the Serpent of Fire, the Arrow that Pierces the Fire. Loose it at
the invaders; drive them away with the power of Huitzilopochtli. But
shoot it straight and well, for it must not fall to earth. And if it
should wound one or two of our foes, then we shall still have a
little time left and a chance to conquer their.. Now, let us see what
the god's will may be! "


The siege of Tenochtitlan, according to the histories, paintings and
chronicles, lasted exactly eighty days. Thirty thousand men from the
kingdom of Tezcoco were killed during this time, of the more than
200,000 who fought on the side of the Spaniards.
Of the Aztecs, more
than 240,000 were killed. Almost all of the nobility perished: there
remained alive only a few lords and knights and the little children.

Soldiers in New Spain

. . . .

The soldiers of the frontier essentially can be separated into three
categories; the tropas veteranas, or European infantry and dragoons,
the soldiers of the country, commonly represented by the soldados de
cuera, or leather jacket soldiers, and the Indian auxilaries drawn
from friendly tribes and Mission Indians.

The soldier of the period was generally illiterate, drawn from the
lower rungs of Spanish society. On the frontier his value increased.
In New Spain he had more opportunity to move upwards in the caste
system through military service and valor.

http://www.soldados.us/2ndCat/NewSpSold.htm
 

 
'Who controls the past controls the future: who controls the present controls the past.'    George Orwell, 1984.
 
Germs, Plagues, Famine,
 
For More Information, Read:
 
The Disastrous 14th Century
The Black Death

Boccaccio, The Decameron, Introduction

The onset of the Black Death was described by Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375).

http://faculty.juniata.edu/tuten/plague.html

Spanish and Nahuatl Views on Smallpox and Demographic Catastrophe in the Conquest of Mexico:

http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/vircatas/vir6.htm

[Chapter on] Genocide
http://home1.gte.net/res0k62m/columbus.htm#genocide

Movie: Black Robe 

The Black Robe is a sprawling recreation of a turbelent period in Canadian history. In 1634, Jesuit missionary Father Laforgue (Lothair Bluteau) arrives in the New World, hoping to convert the Huron Indian tribe to Catholicism-and, incidentally, to expedite the French colonization of Quebec. Laforgue is regarded with a combination of warmth and wariness by the natives, who refer to Laforgue and his fellow priests as "black robes". Offering his services as both guide and friend is Algonquin chief Chomina (August Schellenberg). The by-the-book Laforgue does little to endear himself to the Indians-one of whom, a holy man, labels the priest as a demon who will bring nothing but death and destruction. The one who suffers most is Chomina, the man who most desires peaceful coexistence. In an ironic coda, we learn that the "black robes" have set into motion the fall of the Hurons, simply by imposing their Christian values upon them. 


http://movies.aol.com/movie/main.adp?tab=synop&mid=17415&ncid=AOLMOV00170000000007 

CARACAS, Venezuela (Reuters) - Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez urged
Latin Americans on Saturday not to celebrate Columbus Day, saying the
1492 discovery of the Americas triggered a 150-year "genocide" of
native Indians by foreign conquerors who behaved "worse than Hitler."
 
No Cheers for Columbus, Says Venezuela's Chavez
Sat Oct 11, 4:21 PM ET Add World -
 
SAN FRANCISCO, California (AP) -- A research team backed by a federal grant has created a genetically engineered mousepox virus designed to evade vaccines, underscoring biotechnology's deadly potential and stirring debate over whether such research plays into the hands of terrorists.
 
 
BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AND ITS CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS

Thomas W. McGovern, MD, MAJ, MC

George W. Christopher, LTC, USAF, MC

‘Biological Warfare’ (BW) is defined as the ’employment of biological agents to produce casualties in man or animals or damage to plants.’[91] An early BW attack took place in the Black Sea port of Kaffa (now Feodossia, Ukraine) in 1346. Rats and their fleas carried the disease to attacking Tatar soldiers. In spite, the Tatars catapulted the bodies of victims at the defending Genoese who contracted plague and left Kaffa. The same rats afflicting the Tatars likely brought disease to the Genoese.[5]

Another attempted use of biological warfare occurred between 1754 and 1767 when the British infiltrated smallpox-infested blankets to unsuspecting American Indians during the French and Indian war. Smallpox decimated the Indians, but it is unclear if the contaminated blankets or endemic disease brought by the Europeans caused these epidemics.[

http://www.telemedicine.org/BioWar/biologic.htm

New Tuskegee experiment planned
with pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine

by Bart Classen
http://www.iahf.com/20000222a.html
 
Discovering the Hanta Virus - "The power of oral history combined
with biomedical investigative techniques was displayed during the
1993 Hanta virus epidemic in Navajo country. In June of 1993, 15
tribal healers met with IHS and CDC biomedical professionals to
discuss possible causes of the "mystery illness". To the Navajo, any
excess is a form of disharmony. Excess rain and snow had fallen that
winter and brought an abundance of pinion nuts and new vegetation.
Navajo oral tradition mentions three times that this has happened in
recent history: 1918, 1933, and 1993. Many Navajos died of sudden and
powerful diseases each time. Elders cited the abundant pinion crop
and a high rodent population as the cause. This reference led
investigators to find the answer to the "mystery illness" within a
matter of days by testing rodent feces and urine samples.

http://www.epa.gov/osp/tribes/sciinf/waysknow.htm


What is the Hanta virus?
Hanta virus is a fast acting disease that can affect humans. It is
transmitted by airborne particles originating with deer mice. Unless
an individual is working in a confined space where mice exist, it is
unlikely that the disease can be transmitted. The virus cannot
survive without moisture and our dry climate kills particles of the
virus in mouse urine as soon as the urine is dry. Hanta virus is
recognized by flu-like symptoms and a buildup of fluid in the lungs.



Is Hanta virus only found on the reservation?
Hanta virus was named for a river in Korea! It occurs in many states.
The Four Corners became associated with it because of an outbreak in
a small hamlet in northwest New Mexico, Once the illness was
identified, cases were discovered in many other states.

http://www.navajocentral.org/faq02b.htm
 
Jeffrey1 Amherst and Smallpox Blankets:

Smallpox blankets
Despite his fame, Jeffrey Amherst's name became tarnished by stories
of smallpox-infected blankets used as germ warfare against American
Indians. These stories are reported, for example, in Carl Waldman's
Atlas of the North American Indian [NY: Facts on File, 1985]. Waldman
writes, in reference to a siege of Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh) by Chief
Pontiac's forces during the summer of 1763:

... Captain Simeon Ecuyer had bought time by sending smallpox-
infected blankets and handkerchiefs to the Indians surrounding the
fort -- an early example of biological warfare -- which started an
epidemic among them. Amherst himself had encouraged this tactic in a
letter to Ecuyer. [p. 108]
Some people have doubted these stories; other people, believing the
stories, nevertheless assert that the infected blankets were not
intentionally distributed to the Indians, or that Lord Jeff himself
is not to blame for the germ warfare tactic.

http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/amherst/lord_jeff.html
__________________________________

Blackbird's History
...
The practice of smallpox inoculation is dated to the eleventh century
in China and was known in Africa and the Middle East. Translations of
Chinese medical treatises were a major means of promoting smallpox
inoculation in eighteenth-century Europe and the Americas.1
The "mouldy particles" that Andrew Blackbird says caused an infection
among the Ottawa Indians sound remarkably like the infectious matter
introduced in the process of inoculation. Chinese medical textbooks
offer descriptions of classic inoculation procedures. The Golden
Mirror of Medicine, for instance, describes four methods of smallpox
inoculation; two of them are as follows:
(1) The nose is plugged with powdered smallpox scabs laid on cotton
wool... (2) ... The powdered scabs are put into the end of a silver
tube which is about six or seven inches long and curved at the end.
The scabs are blown into the nose. (Hume 140)
[pp. 144-145]

http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/amherst/jaskoski.html

_______________________________
The Fall of Empires: Variola Rex and the Course of History


Smallpox greatly affected the development of western civilization.
The first stages of the decline of the Roman Empire, around AD 180,
coincided with a large-scale epidemic: the plague of Antonine, which
killed between 3.5 and 7 million persons [9,10]. The Arab expansion,
the Crusades, and the discovery of the West Indies all contributed to
the spread of the illness. Unknown in the New World, smallpox was
introduced by Spanish and Portuguese conquistadors. It decimated the
local population and was instrumental in the fall of the empires of
the Aztecs and the Incas. When the Spanish arrived in 1518, Mexico
had about 25 million inhabitants; by 1620, this number had diminished
to 1.6 million [11]. A similar decrease occurred on the eastern coast
of what became the United States, where the advent of smallpox had
disastrous consequences for the native population [12], and the
disease continued to be spread through the relentless process of
European colonization [13]. The devastating effect of smallpox gave
rise to one of the first examples of biological warfare. In a letter
written to Colonel Henry Bouquet in 1763, Sir Jeffrey Amherst,
commander-in-chief of British forces in North America, suggested
grinding the scabs of smallpox pustules into blankets that were to be
distributed among disaffected tribes of Indians [14,15]. The slave
trade also contributed to the introduction of the illness in the
Americas because many slaves came from regions of Africa in which
smallpox was endemic [16].

http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/127/8_Part_1/635

____________________________
OF ARMS AND MEN; A History of War, Weapons, and Aggression
Robert L. O'Connell
A wide-ranging study which integrates the evolution of politics,
weapons, strategy, and tactics into a coherent narrative of warfare
from prehistoric times to the nuclear age, and how weapons have made
human qualities irrelevant in combat. 1989: 367 pages, illustrated.
Softcover. (Oxford)

http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0195053605/inktomi-bkasin-
20/ref%3Dnosim/002-4918247-6840866

Check out also the Book:
Of Wolves and Men pp.170-171
Author: Lopez, Barry

http://www.worldhistoryhub.com/OF_WOLVES_AND_MEN_0684163225.html


WINTER WARFARE
http://www.ncweb.com/~davecurry/brothers/ardennes.html
 
 
 
 
Invasion:

For More Information, Read:

LAS MASACRES EN LA NARRATIVALATINOAMERICANA
(Heterodoxia  discursiva)

http://www.hispanista.com.br/revista/artigo67.htm

Hernan Cortés: from Second Letter to Charles V, 1520

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1520cortes.html

American Indian Heritage and World View.

http://www.jqjacobs.net/writing/intgrstd.html

What Happened in Cholula?

A Mexica Perspective

http://www.theaha.org/tl/LessonPlans/ca/Fitch/cholula2.htm

The Conquest of Mexico 

An Annotated Bibliography 

Dr. Nancy Fitch

http://faculty.fullerton.edu/nfitch/nehaha/conquestbib.htm

Indios: «perros sucios» o «salvajes nobles» S. XVI

Leonardo Bracamonte

Jueves 22 de junio de 2000

http://www.analitica.com/bitblioteca/leonardo_bracamonte/perros_sucios.asp

Columbus' Legacy of Genocide

Excerpted from the book Indians are Us
(Common Courage Press, 1994)
by Ward Churchill

http://web.mit.edu/thistle/www/v9/9.11/1columbus.html

The Indian Question

By Lieutenant Colonel Elwell S. Otis

Published in 1878

 

Documents on the Sand Creek Massacre
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/four/sandcrk.htm

The Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890 (which was originally referred to
by the United States army as the Battle of Wounded Knee -- a
descriptive moniker that remains highly contested by the Native
American community) is known as the event that ended the last of the
Indian wars in America. As the year came to a close, the Seventh
Cavalry of the United States Army brought an horrific end to the
century-long U.S. government-Indian armed conflicts.


http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/acs/1890s/woundedknee/WKIntro.html

Chief Big Foot After the Massacre of Wounded Knee

This photograph shows the body of Big Foot, lying in the snow after
the massacre at Wounded Knee.

http://www.picturehistory.com/find/p/8219/mcms.html

"I did not know then how much was ended. When I look back now from
this high hill of my old age, I can still see the butchered women and
children lying heaped and scattered along the crooked gulch as plain
as when I saw them with eyes still young. And I can see that
something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the
blizzard. A people's dream died there. It was a beautiful dream...
The nation's hoop is broken and scattered. There is no center any
longer, and the sacred tree is dead."

Black Elk

Slide show photos courtesy "Eyewitness at Wounded Knee,"

http://msnbc.com/onair/msnbc/TimeandAgain/archive/wknee/1890.asp?cp1=1

http://www.studymed.de/woundedk.html

Wounded Knee Links @ Buffalo Trails - Wounded Knee Massacre
http://www.native-americans.org/links/wounded-knee-links.htm

Lakota Accounts of the Massacre at Wounded Knee
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/wklakota.htm

"We came here to serve God and also to get rich."
-Bernal Diaz del Castillo

 
 
The Fall of Natural Man
The American Indian and the Origins of Comparative Ethnology
 
This book gives a new interpretation of the reception of the new
world by the old. It is the first in-depth study of the pre-
Enlightenment methods by which Europeans attempted to describe and
classify the American Indian and his society.
 

 
Friars:
 
For More Information, Read:
 
Don Vasco de Quiroga
Amerindian and Spanish Cultural Conflict and Syncretism in Michoacan, Mexico
http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=28041961002465
 

"Religious Orders, The Indian, And The Conquest:  Fifty Years of
Dispute and Contradiction"

by Maria Paz Haro, Translated by James Dunlap
http://muweb.millersville.edu/~columbus/data/art/HARO-01.ART

When Religion is a Weapon of Mass Destruction... there is no Freedom
by Terri Jean
http://www.wildhunt.org/myth/destruction.html

Recordemos que los indígenas de Bolivia, cuando dieron al Papa una Biblia, le dijeron: 

Esta Biblia también hizo muchas barbaridades, y también ella está entre las causas de la pobreza que vive el indio. Las armas de Portugal y de España, sin la Biblia, no hubieran podido hacer nada

http://www.fut.es/~fqi_ct02/reque_ct.htm

Deuteronomy and Ethnocide/and Genocide
7:1 When the LORD thy God shall bring thee into the land whither thou
goest to possess it, and hath cast out many nations before thee, the
Hittites, and the Girgashites, and the Amorites, and the Canaanites,
and the Perrizites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, seven nations
greater and mightier than thou;

7:2 And when the LORD thy God shall deliver them before thee, thou
shalt smite them and utterly destroy them, thou shalt make no
covenant with them, nor show mercy to them:

7:16 And thou shalt consume all the people which the LORD thy God
shall deliver to thee; thy eye shall have no pity upon them: neither
shalt thou serve their gods; for that will be a snare to thee.

http://www.bibledatabase.com/exec/online/webster/05_007.htm

20:16 But of the cities of these people which the LORD thy God doth
give thee for an inheritance, thou shalt save alive nothing that
breatheth:

20:17 But thou shalt utterly destroy them, namely, the Hittites, and
the Amorites, the Canaanites, and the Perizzites, the Hivites, and
the Jebusites, as the LORD thy God hath commanded thee:

http://www.bibledatabase.com/exec/online/webster/05_020.htm
 
 
Montesinos In His Own Words:

SECOND SUNDAY OF ADVENT, 1511--"I am the voice of one crying in the
wilderness...You are in mortal sin and live and die in it because of
the cruelty and tyranny that you use against these innocent peoples.
Tell me, by what right, with what justice do you hold these Indians
in such cruel and horrible servitude? On what authority have you
waged such detestable wars on these peoples, in their mild and
peaceful lands, where you have consumed such infinitudes of them,
wereaking upon them this death and unheard-of havoc?....And what care
do you take that anyone catechize them, so that they may come to know
their God and Creator, be patized, hear Mass, observe Sundays and
Holy Days? Are they not human beings? Have they no rational souls?
Are you not obligated to love them as you love yourselves? Do you not
understand this?...How is it that you sleep so soundly, so
lethargically?"

http://www.domlife.org/history02.html
 
Franciscus de Victoria, De Indis: Reading Guide
Copyright © 1996 R.J. Kilcullen
http://www.humanities.mq.edu.au/Ockham/y67s18.html

Francisco de Vitoria, John Marshall and Legal Justifications for
Colonization in the Americas:

http://lawschool.unm.edu/faculty/bobroff/Bobroff%20Spain%20Final%20Draft.pdf
 
The Spanish Debate On the Americas
 
Juan Ginés De Sepulveda
Democrates Alter,
Or, on the Just Causes
for War Against the Indians

http://www.columbia.edu/acis/ets/CCREAD/sepulved.htm

Visit: the Immortal and Powerful Mexican-Jaguars!

 
I turn to Simplicity, I turn again to Purity!
 
 
 

Welcome to the Mexican-Jaguars' Stronghold!

Lucio Cabañas

¡De nican para tech quixtizque xtopa tech mictizque!
De aquí para poder sacarnos, primero tendrán que matarnos!
 
 
Since 1521.  Ce-Tekpa Toltekoa. All Materials are Created and Designed by: Mexican-Jaguar Revolutionary Front©; Mexican-Jaguar Revolutionaries  © Formation of the Mexican-Jaguar Military -Lodge(c)  The Immortal and Powerful Mexican-Jaguars©
 
 

 
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