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Of the basis which the Indians have for worshipping the sun
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Cultural Extremists
On the 'Nican Tlaca' Enigma
The Myth of the Vanishing Race
The Mestizo Concept: A Product of European Imperialism
El concepto de indio en América
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HOW COLUMBUS CREATED THE CANNIBALS
Christopher Columbus - on trial
Charioteer of the Gods/ Alien Versus Predator
The International Jew
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Anthropophagy: TRUE CANNIBALISM!
On Human Sacrifice
Sacrificios Humanos entre los Mexicas, Realidad o Fantasia?
Sacrificios Humanos
Death Be Not Strange
Jack D. Forbes: Eurocentric Concepts Harm Native People and What Do We Mean By America and American
Contra la deformación histórica-cultural
Nuestra Cultura Indígena
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Myths of the Spaniards and Puritans
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The Role of Disease in 'Conquest'
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"Religious Aspects of the Conquest of Mexico"
There is no word for 'Devil' in the Nahuatl Language
Origins of First Americans Research
Links to Further research On the Origins of the First Americans
The Finding and Founding of Tenochtitlan
Attack on the Copernican Theory
Of the basis which the Indians have for worshipping the sun
ADDENDUM II: The Florentine Codex
Rabinal Achi: Act Four--Inside the Fortress
Cultural Visibility and the Cora
Los Voladores and the Return of the Ancestors
War Songs of the Tenochka
Cantares Mexicanos
Viva Mi General Francisco Villa!
In Spirit of Agustin Lorenzo
Corridos y Canciones del Pueblo
Teotecpillatolli
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Second Chapter, Which Telleth of the Moon
Men Who Became Gods!
The Mexica or Mexiti
POPUL VUH
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In Ixiptla In Teteo!
Teotecpillatolli: Noble Sacred Speech
Nahua Invocations
Cuento: La llorona
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Moctezuma el Magnifico y la Invasion de Anahuak
In Blood and Fire!!
Rules
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Amendment V, and The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 18
Paper Wars
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The Battle of the Bulge
Truth and Falsehood in War-Time
The Bryce Report
Sun Tzu: Arte de Guerra
Sun Tzu: On Spies
We Believe and Profess
Mushashi: Cinco Anillos
Sixth Chapter, which telleth of the men, the valiant men
Seeds of Revolt in the Americas: Synopsis
'Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders' & 'License To Kill'
CALIFORNIA SENATE BILL No. 670
Jose Ortega Y Gasset: On Plato's 'Republic' and On Forms of Government
Thomas Paine (17371809). Common Sense. 1776 [Excerpts]
Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality
Introduction to Deloria's "We Talk, You Listen"
My Tayta Jose Maria and the Indian aspect of the Peruvian Revolution
TO THE SUNDANCE NATIONS OF THE GREAT PLAINS
Philip Deere, Longest Walk speech
Bacbi'awak: 'Made To Die'
Born Gods!
Prologue: "The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Life-ways"
Black Elk Speaks: Visions of the Other World
Miantinomo, Acuera, and Tecumseh, Hatuey Speaks
Chief Seattle Speaks
Chief Red Cloud Speaks
Hopi: A Message for All People
On Judeo-Christianity
"LET'S MAKE A SLAVE" by Willie Lynch
On Slavery
On Indian Casinos
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¿Quién Gobierna el Mundo?
Frida Kahlo is Not Our Hero!
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In this New Spain, as in all the pagan nations, they held, and on
account of our sins still hold, the sun in great veneration,
treating it as it were God. The basis which they had for this was a
tradition which was current among the Indians: that is, that there
were two worlds or two kinds of people.

In the first, mankind was transmuted into animals and into the sun
and the moon. Thus they attribute a rational soul to the sun, moon,
and animals, speaking to them for their sorceries as if they
understood, summoning and invoking them under other names for their
spells, as will be told at greater length in its proper place. As a
basis for the worship of the sun, they recount a fable of the kind
in Ovid's Metamorphoses, which they tell concisely. They say, then,
that those of that era had to transform themselves into the things
that they had to be.

In the second, the transformation had to be in accord with each
one's merits. A huge bonfire was ordered to be made, so that
providing themselves in it after it had been well ignited, they
might acquire merit for the said transformation; for it was
established law that they would attain honor and excellence by means
of that fire, and would be superior lords in the second era.

This rumor and hope of excellence and superiority, and of being
turned into gods, briefly brought together a great number of people,
especially leaders and potentates of that era, ambitious and
desirous of commanding everything—as is usual in such persons, since
it seems to them that all are in their debt, no matter how
unreasonable this might be.

Once a great number of leaders and potentates had been gathered
together, and the furnace or bonfire well lit for the ordeal, the
said potentates began the undertaking, giving preference to the
lowly as they always do in similar engagements, even though these
might have fewer merits. But in this, as the power of favor and
bribery was not in effect, they did not prevail; because while the
drive of ambition and the desire to rule incited and encouraged
them, fear intimidated them and the danger of the fire disheartened
them. And so, seeing that all had arrived at the ordeal, these
remained at the first step, and the others at the second, while the
bravest did not pass the first stair of the furnace. They spent
many hours on these without anyone daring to enter the fire.

Suddenly there came forth among them all the one then called God—in
their tongue CENTEOTL ICNOPILTZINTLI which literally means "single
God, son without a father." [Single God, Orphan/ Tezcatlipoca.
Translation, mine]. This one spoke to a sick person there, who was
covered with pox and sores. He said to him that since he saw what
was going on—that in spite of the greatness of the prize, not one of
those powerful and rich magnates had dared undergo the ordeal—he
should stand out among them all and take such a great prize from
their grasp by entering the fire before any other. The sick one
gave the excuse that those very potentates would not let him get
there, but the god persisted in talking to him, persuading him to
rush in among them all and to quickly throw himself into the fire.

At that, the poor, poxy, sore-covered invalid resolved himself to
such rigorous ordeal. When he passed towards it among those
powerful beings, they stopped him, insulting and reproaching him
that such a base person, sick, poor, and stinking, should dare an
undertaking worthy and fitting only for persons such as they. But
after stopping him in this way once or twice, the third time he
passed without them being able to detain him nor even to see him
until he was at the furnace's mouth, whence they could not remove
him since no one dared go there.

Then the invalid bravely hurled himself into the midst of that
ranging inferno; through its force and flames his entire sickness
and sores were purged and purified, and he became handsome and
shinning and was turned into the sun, which is the most brilliant of
heavenly bodies. This was the prize of the testing of his soul and
suffering, for which he deserved the said transmutation, and through
which he rose to heaven and was worshipped as God. But as soon as
he left the said furnace purified, he threw himself into a pool of
very cold water, which had also been prepared as an ordeal; on
leaving it fully cleansed, he passed to heaven where he hid himself.

Seeing this happen, one of the healthy ones amongst all that
multitude of people which had assembled for the ordeal, ashamed that
a sick, poxy person (called Nanahuatzin in their tongue) should have
achieved such high honor and distinction among so many, and
irritated by ambition and envy, did what the first had done.
Passing boldly through the midst of them all, he hurled himself into
the furnace. But he found it quenched by the first one's ordeal—by
the fluids and corruption from which he had escaped—and so he could
not achieve such purity, even though on leaving the furnace he also
threw himself into the said pool of water. But since he could not
be the sun, he was transformed into the moon with less light than
the sun—altered because he had found the furnace less hot.
Thereupon, he rose to heaven like the sun. [Others vary in the
manner of the conversion or transmutation of this sick one into the
sun. They say that a wealthy Eagle came from heaven, seized him,
and carried him off to heaven…. About the second one, who had begun
to undergo the same ordeal, they say that a Jaguar attempted to get
him out of it, but could not, and was marked by having gone into the
fire; that is why it has those yellow and black paintings. And
[they say] that the said wise man was burned up and converted into
ashes, and that afterwards the gods carried him off to heaven and
converted him into the moon; that is why the moon has that ashy or
chalky color.]

This accomplished, it only remained for the sun to show itself so
that each one could fulfill his obligation, honoring as God,
sacrificing to it, and making offerings to it. This had to be done
during fasts as punishments for the bad outcome of the
transformation, since once all the rest of that people had performed
it, they belonged entirely to the Sun. So as to better himself
through the said transformation, each one endeavored to improve
himself through his offering. All, while fasting, waited for the
sun to show itself to them so that they might make sacrifice and
offering to it.

While they were waiting, the sun showed itself to them in the west,
but hid itself so quickly that they had no time to make an offering
to it. The second time it came up in the South, and what happened
the first time took place. The third time it came up in the North
and hid itself as on the two previous occasions. At that, one of
those ready for the offering, being tired of fasting and discouraged
with tricks, ate his offering. Afterwards the sun came up in the
East and continued its course to the West, upon which all those
ready made their offerings and sacrifices. But the one who had
eaten his offering found himself with nothing to offer. Even though
he went to the rest of them, no one would give him anything. Seeing
himself, then, pressed by necessity and opportunity, and with no
choice in the matter, he looked for something to offer. He reached
now for stones, now for sticks, and he even wanted to grasp the
insubstantial shadows, but in the end he found nothing to offer.

On account of this, they say, the sun turned him into a bird called
Huinaxcatl [hungry sparrow hawk], and condemned him to perpetual
hunger for not having fasted, and to grasping empty shadows for not
having made an offering. This is confirmed by the fact that this
bird appears by night and is nothing more than feathers and bones,
and always appears to be confused. They say that the sun turned the
rest who had fasted and made offerings into good animals, and that
they would always have something to eat.

On this fabulous history, or perhaps we should say historical fable,
is based most of what the Indians do today in their idolatries to
the sun, carrying offerings to it as soon as it rises above the
mountain peaks and hilltops and pools of water.

Secondly, there is the custom of and superstitious devotion to
keeping a fire in the borning room without removing the fire for
four days in a row, as will be told in its place at greater length.

Thirdly, there is the use of the number four in all their
superstitions and idolatrous rites, such as during the insufflations
which the sorcerers and false doctors make when they exorcise or
invoke the Devil. I could never track down the reason for it until
I heard a story of waiting for the sun. for the same reason the
hunters, when they set out snares to catch deer, shout towards the
four quarters of the world and place four crossed cords on a rock.
The archers call four times to the deer, repeating four times this
word TAHUI ["Hola! Oh!"] which nobody understands today, and then
shouting four times like a Puma. They place a lighted candle on the
grave for the dead for four successive days, while others throw a
pitcher of water on it for four successive days. And finally, the
number four is venerated among them.

[Taken from: Aztec Sorcerers in Seventeenth Century Mexico: The
Treatise on Superstitions. By Hernando Ruiz de Alarcon. Chapter
10]

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