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The Role of Disease in 'Conquest'
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Cultural Extremists
On the 'Nican Tlaca' Enigma
The Myth of the Vanishing Race
The Mestizo Concept: A Product of European Imperialism
El concepto de indio en América
OBITUARIES: G. Tantaquidgeon, 106
HOW COLUMBUS CREATED THE CANNIBALS
Christopher Columbus - on trial
Charioteer of the Gods/ Alien Versus Predator
The International Jew
On The Jewish Question
Anthropophagy: TRUE CANNIBALISM!
On Human Sacrifice
Sacrificios Humanos entre los Mexicas, Realidad o Fantasia?
Sacrificios Humanos
Death Be Not Strange
Jack D. Forbes: Eurocentric Concepts Harm Native People and What Do We Mean By America and American
Contra la deformación histórica-cultural
Nuestra Cultura Indígena
On the Spanish Catholic Inquisition
Myths of the Spaniards and Puritans
On the behavior of the Europeans toward the Native Americans
The Role of Disease in 'Conquest'
Germs, Plagues, Famine, Invasion, Friars, And Native Allies!
"Religious Aspects of the Conquest of Mexico"
There is no word for 'Devil' in the Nahuatl Language
Origins of First Americans Research
Links to Further research On the Origins of the First Americans
The Finding and Founding of Tenochtitlan
Attack on the Copernican Theory
Of the basis which the Indians have for worshipping the sun
ADDENDUM II: The Florentine Codex
Rabinal Achi: Act Four--Inside the Fortress
Cultural Visibility and the Cora
Los Voladores and the Return of the Ancestors
War Songs of the Tenochka
Cantares Mexicanos
Viva Mi General Francisco Villa!
In Spirit of Agustin Lorenzo
Corridos y Canciones del Pueblo
Teotecpillatolli
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Second Chapter, Which Telleth of the Moon
Men Who Became Gods!
The Mexica or Mexiti
POPUL VUH
EL TLACUACHE Y EL COYOTE
In Ixiptla In Teteo!
Teotecpillatolli: Noble Sacred Speech
Nahua Invocations
Cuento: La llorona
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Puerta del Diablo: El Salvador
Moctezuma el Magnifico y la Invasion de Anahuak
In Blood and Fire!!
Rules
Excerpts of the Geneva Protocols
Amendment V, and The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 18
Paper Wars
The Defense of Duffer's Drift
The Battle of the Bulge
Truth and Falsehood in War-Time
The Bryce Report
Sun Tzu: Arte de Guerra
Sun Tzu: On Spies
We Believe and Profess
Mushashi: Cinco Anillos
Sixth Chapter, which telleth of the men, the valiant men
Seeds of Revolt in the Americas: Synopsis
'Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders' & 'License To Kill'
CALIFORNIA SENATE BILL No. 670
Jose Ortega Y Gasset: On Plato's 'Republic' and On Forms of Government
Thomas Paine (17371809). Common Sense. 1776 [Excerpts]
Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality
Introduction to Deloria's "We Talk, You Listen"
My Tayta Jose Maria and the Indian aspect of the Peruvian Revolution
TO THE SUNDANCE NATIONS OF THE GREAT PLAINS
Philip Deere, Longest Walk speech
Bacbi'awak: 'Made To Die'
Born Gods!
Prologue: "The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Life-ways"
Black Elk Speaks: Visions of the Other World
Miantinomo, Acuera, and Tecumseh, Hatuey Speaks
Chief Seattle Speaks
Chief Red Cloud Speaks
Hopi: A Message for All People
On Judeo-Christianity
"LET'S MAKE A SLAVE" by Willie Lynch
On Slavery
On Indian Casinos
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¿Quién Gobierna el Mundo?
Frida Kahlo is Not Our Hero!
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The Influenza Pandemic of 1918

The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 killed more people than the Great
War, known today as World War I (WWI), at somewhere between 20 and 40
million people. It has been cited as the most devastating epidemic in
recorded world history. More people died of influenza in a single
year than in four-years of the Black Death Bubonic Plague from 1347
to 1351. Known as "Spanish Flu" or "La Grippe" the influenza of 1918-
1919 was a global disaster.

La viruela. Aliada de los conquistadores

En términos de la devastación causada en las sociedades medievales y
modernas, la peste negra es solamente comparable con la viruela. Sin
embargo, la historia temprana de la viruela presenta grandes
dificultades para el historiador de la medicina, ya que, es muy
difícil establecer un diagnóstico diferencial entre la viruela y
otras enfermedades eruptivas de tipo febril, como el sarampión, la
varicela o la escarlatina, a partir de las descripciones
proporcionadas por los cronistas.

No cabe duda que conquistadores españoles contaron con un inesperado,
silencioso y mortal aliado que contribuyó notablemente al éxito de
Cortés y a la pronta caída de Tenochtitlán. Un soldado de la
expedición de Pánfilo de Narváez arribó a México enfermo de viruela,
enfermedad hasta entonces desconocida en Mesoamérica. La falta de
inmunidad natural a la viruela permitió que ésta se extendiera
rápidamente entre la población indígena con desastrosas consecuencias
para la misma. En pocas semanas miles de indígenas sucumbieron a la
viruela; recordemos que el propio Cuitláhuac, penúltimo emperador
azteca, falleció por causa de esta enfermedad. Recientes estimaciones
epidemiológicas han llevado a postular que durante los primeros
veinticinco años posteriores a la Conquista más de un tercio de la
población indígena sucumbió a la viruela. Es probable que tal
devastación natural haya contribuido en forma radical al
establecimiento del régimen colonial, explicando también en parte por
qué imperios tan poderosos y organizados como el azteca y el inca
fueron borrados del mapa, sin mayor oposición, en unos cuantos años.
El príncipe Baltasar Carlos (1630-46) heredero del trono muere a los
16 años de viruela, con la perniciosa colaboración de la medicina de
la época, que lo sangró repetidas veces. La viruela cambió así,
nuevamente, el rumbo de la Historia de España, ya que practicamente
extinguió la Casa de Austria, al resultar impotente el sucesor, su
hermano Carlos II, conocido como el Hechizado. Esta circunstancia se
repetirá poco más tarde con Luis I de Borbón.


El 14 de mayo será por siempre una fecha memorable en la historia de
las ciencias en general y del efecto preventivo de la vacuna en
particular. Ese día del año 1796, El inglés Edward Jenner hizo la
primera inoculación contra la viruela. James Phipps, un niño de ocho
años de edad, fue el primer inoculado con secreción recogida de una
pústula vacuna (viruela de vacas) en la mano de una lechera que se
había infectado durante un ordeño. El primero de julio siguiente
inoculó de nuevo al pequeño, esa vez con pus procedente de una
persona enferma de viruela. Este quedó indemne, con lo cual se
demostró la acción profiláctica de la inoculación contra la viruela
humana.


La vacunación contra la viruela se inició en 1800 en los Estados
Unidos, pero no se administró en forma rutinaria hasta principios del
siglo XX. La viruela había desaparecido hacia 1900 en varios países
del norte de Europa. En 1914, las tasas de incidencia se habían
reducido en forma significativa en la mayoría de los países
industrializados. No obstante, durante este mismo período, entre
1910 y 1914, se desató una epidemia en Rusia, que cobró las vidas de
200.000 rusos y casi 25.000 habitantes de los países europeos
vecinos. En la década de 1920, los programas de vacunación detuvieron
la expansión de la viruela en varios países europeos, y para la
década de 1930 los únicos casos eran importados, con la notable
excepción de España y Portugal. La viruela siguió siendo endémica en
estos dos países hasta 1948 y 1953, respectivamente. En Canadá, la
propagación de la viruela llegó a su fin a principios de los 40,
mientras que en Japón se la detuvo cerca de 1950.
La viruela endémica se erradicó de 20 países en el oeste y centro de
África en 1970, en Brasil en 1971 y en Indonesia al año siguiente. La
incidencia de la viruela se derrumbó en forma drástica en 1972, con
casos informados en ocho países endémicos en África y el sudeste de
Asia. Por último, se erradicó la viruela endémica del continente
asiático en 1975. La difusión de la enfermedad se detuvo en Etiopía
en 1976 y en Somalía el 26 de octubre de 1977, fecha del último caso
natural de viruela. S. Estos casos accidentales fueron de hecho los
últimos.


Hasta la fecha, la viruela es por tanto la única enfermedad que se
erradicó por completo; el último caso natural informado en el mundo
se remonta a 1977 (se informaron dos otros casos luego, en 1978, por
contaminación en un laboratorio). De no haberse eliminado, la
humanidad seguiría pagando un elevado precio a este terrible flagelo.
el 8 de mayo de 1980 la Asamblea Mundial de la Salud declaró
formalmente erradicada la viruela.

http://www.portaldehistoria.com/secciones/epidemias/la_viruela.asp

Vease; Please Read:
 
Katrina Grosso
Dr. Tirado
Hist. 392.01

("One can say that successful colonization was more to pathogens than traditional weapons of the Europeans.")
 
 

Fue el siglo XVI una catástrofe demográfica para México?
Una respuesta basada en la demografía histórica no cuantitativa


publicado en
Cuadernos de Historia, no. 15 (Diciembre 1995), pp. 123-136

 

Robert McCaa

(traducido por Carlos Aguirre)

http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/nocuant/nocuant.htm

Was the 16th century a demographic catastrophe for Mexico?
An answer using non-quantitative historical demography

Robert McCaa


Department of History, University of Minnesota

Presented at the V Reunión Nacional de Investigación Demográfica en
México
El Colegio de México, México, D.F.
5 al 9 de junio de 1995
forthcoming (in Spanish) in the (long-delayed) conference proceedings
© 1995

http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/noncuant/democat0.htm

 

Virgin Soil Epidemics: Understanding the Role of Disease in Conquest and Colonization

http://www.wou.edu/las/socsci/kimjensen/crosby.html

"Revisioning smallpox in Mexico City-Tenochtitlán, 1520-1950:

What difference did charity, quarantine, inoculation and vaccination
make?"

Robert McCaa, University of Minnesota

http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/pox/poxcity.doc

Spanish and Nahuatl Views on Smallpox and Demographic Catastrophe in
the Conquest of Mexico:


Robert McCaa
version: March 14, 1994, excludes notes and bibliography
©Portions appearing in Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 25:3
(Winter 1995), 397-431.
rmccaa@tc.umn.edu

http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/vircatas/vir6.htm

Anti-Livestock Warfare

http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/4/4/192525.shtml

Possible Scenario

A likely course of events might involve follow:

· A member of the terrorist group travels to Asia (possible China)
to obtain scabs or fluid from infected animal

· Terrorist infect a small herd of swine to act as a incubator

· Samples are collected from herd and buffered at a pH between 6.5
and 11 to maintain viability and are placed in aerosolizesers

· Members of the terrorist group travel to major livestock center in
the United States

· Members of the terrorist group gain access to major livestock
markets throughout the United States

· Members spray aerosolized FMD into pens of cattle and swine in
sale barns, and trucks

· Animal are then dispersed to different parts of the country

· Some animals begin to develop symptoms as early as 12 hours after
exposure, but initially are attributed to shipping stress

· After initially exposed animals have been moved out, the pens and
grounds are contaminated and posed to infect the next group of
animals to enter the livestock market

The biologic economic warfare cycle has begun. Before FMD can be
initially diagnosed, it has already spread beyond the initial
confines of the livestock markets. Trucks hauling animals from
market are dispersing the agent around the country. After the
initial diagnosis, herds are being quarantined around the country.
USDA personnel are responding to multiple reported suspect herds,
and resources are being spread thin. The news media has picked-up on
the news of possible FMD outbreaks, and the public is becoming
concerned. Misinformation concerning the Food and Mouth Disease in
animals, and Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in children is causing
public panic. After the FMD serotype has been determined and linked
to Asia, the source will not be determined and the possibility of a
BW attack will begin to be considered.

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ep/avma/villard.html

History of Biological Warfare:

http://www.mindcontrolforums.com/medicalbook-history-biological-warfare.htm

Biological weapons can be deployed in three ways:


contamination of food or water supplies, which are then ingested by
the victims

release of infected vectors, such as mosquitoes or fleas, which then
bite the victims

creation of an aerosol cloud, which is then inhaled by the victims
(or, if the targets are plants, the cloud then settles on and
infects the plants).

http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/blaw/bt/smallpox/Congress/Alibek01.htm

(NOTE: IN THE 1950' THE UNITED STATES WERE PRODUCING MILLIONS OF
MOSQUITOES SO AS TO USE THEM TO INFECT THE ENEMY WITH YELLOW FEVER.
IN 1956 UNEFFECTED MOSQUITOES WERE RELEASED IN GEORGIA KILLING A
DOZEN OR SO INDIVIDUALS.)

See Also:
http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/blaw/bt/smallpox/Congress/Alibek01.htm

 

Syphilis found in the "Old World"
 
Link 1:
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/case_syphilis/

Scientists debate syphilis origins


Tuesday, August 29, 2000

LONDON (AP) - Recent excavations at a medieval friary in Northern
England add weight to the theory that syphilis didn't come to Europe
from the New World.

Skeletons excavated at Hull, dated to between 1300 and 1450, had
clear signs of syphilis, said Anthea Boylston, a paleopathologist
and leader of an archaeological team from University of Bradford in
north England that conducted the dig. Several other skeletons also
showed signs of the disease, she said.

http://www.meritcare.com/news/world/viewarticle.asp?id=3002

(ALSO, PROF. MACIEJ HENNEBERG AND RENATA HENNEBERG HAVE FOUND
EVIDENCE THAT SYPHILIS EXISTED IN THE OLD WORLD 2000 YEARS BEFORE
COLUMBUS. SEE LINK 1 FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION)

-------------------------------------------------------
 
Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe
 
This project involves the creation of a hypertext archive of
narratives, medical consilia, governmental records, religious and
spiritual writings and images documenting the arrival, impact and
response to the problem of epidemic disease in Western Europe between
1348 and 1530. When completed researchers will be able to follow
themes and issues geographically across Europe in any given time
period or chronologically from the first cases of bubonic plague in
1348 to the early sixteenth century.

Introduction
Florence, 1348
Pistoia, 1348
Lucca, 1348

http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/osheim/intro.html

[NOTE: RESEARCH ALSO UNDER THE HEADINGS: MEDIEVAL PLAGUES, BLACK
DEATH, COLERA, SMALL POX, PLAGUES IN EUROPE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE 16TH
CENTURY, MIDDLE 16TH CENTURY INQUISITION IN EUROPE, AND SO FORTH)

WHO: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION!

http://www.who.int/

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I turn to Simplicity, I turn again to Purity!
 
 
 

Welcome to the Mexican-Jaguars' Stronghold!

Lucio Cabañas

¡De nican para tech quixtizque xtopa tech mictizque!
De aquí para poder sacarnos, primero tendrán que matarnos!
 
 
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