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"LET'S MAKE A SLAVE" by Willie Lynch
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The Mestizo Concept: A Product of European Imperialism
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There is no word for 'Devil' in the Nahuatl Language
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Sixth Chapter, which telleth of the men, the valiant men
Seeds of Revolt in the Americas: Synopsis
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CALIFORNIA SENATE BILL No. 670
Jose Ortega Y Gasset: On Plato's 'Republic' and On Forms of Government
Thomas Paine (17371809). Common Sense. 1776 [Excerpts]
Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality
Introduction to Deloria's "We Talk, You Listen"
My Tayta Jose Maria and the Indian aspect of the Peruvian Revolution
TO THE SUNDANCE NATIONS OF THE GREAT PLAINS
Philip Deere, Longest Walk speech
Bacbi'awak: 'Made To Die'
Born Gods!
Prologue: "The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Life-ways"
Black Elk Speaks: Visions of the Other World
Miantinomo, Acuera, and Tecumseh, Hatuey Speaks
Chief Seattle Speaks
Chief Red Cloud Speaks
Hopi: A Message for All People
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"LET'S MAKE A SLAVE" by Willie Lynch
On Slavery
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¿Quién Gobierna el Mundo?
Frida Kahlo is Not Our Hero!
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"LET'S MAKE A SLAVE" by Willie Lynch
The Origin and Development of a Social Being Called "The Negro"

Let us make a slave. What do we Need?

First of all we need a black nigger man, a pregnant nigger woman and
her baby nigger boy. Second, we will use the same basic principle
that we use in breaking a horse, combined with some more sustaining
factors. We reduce them from their natural state in nature; whereas
nature provides them with the natural capacity to take care of their
needs and the needs of their offspring, we break that natural string
of independence from them and thereby create a dependency state so
that we maybe able to get from them useful production for our
business and pleasure.

CARDINAL PRINCIPLE FOR MAKING A NEGRO For fear that our future
generations may not understand the principle of breaking both horses
and men, we lay down the art. For, if we are to sustain our basic
economy we must break both of the beasts together, the nigger and the
horse. We understand that short range planning in economics results
in periodic economic chaos, so that, to avoid turmoil in the economy,
it requires us to have breadth and depth in long range comprehensive
planning, articulating both skill and sharp perception. We lay down
the following principles for long range comprehensive economic
planning:

1) Both horse and niggers are no good to the economy in the wild or
natural state.
2) Both must be broken and tied together for orderly production.
3) For orderly futures, special and particular attention must be paid
to the female and the youngest offspring.
4) Both must be crossbred to produce a variety and division of labor.
5) Both must taught to respond to a peculiar new language.
6) Psychological and physical instruction of containment must be
created for both.

We hold the above six cardinals as truths to be self-evident, based
upon following discourse concerning the economics of breaking and
tying the horse and nigger together...all inclusive of the six
principles laid down above.
NOTE: Neither principles alone will suffice for good economics.
All principles must be employed for the orderly good of the nation.
Accordingly, both a wild horse and a wild or natural nigger is
dangerous even if captured, for they will have the tendency to seek
their customary freedom, and, in doing so, might kill you in your
sleep. You cannot rest. They sleep while you are awake and are awake
while you are asleep. They are dangerous near the family house and it
requires too much labor to watch them away from the house. Above all
you cannot get them to work in this natural state. Hence, both the
horse and the nigger must be broken, that is break them from one form
of mental life to another, keep the body and take the mind. In other
words, break the will to resist.

Now the breaking process in the same for the horse and the nigger,
only slightly varying in degrees. But as we said before, you must
keep your eye focused on the female and the offspring of the horse
and the nigger. A brief discourse in offspring development will shed
light on the key to sound economic principle. Pay little attention to
the generation of original breaking but concentrate on future
generations. Therefore, if you break the female, she will break the
offspring in its early years of development and, when the offspring
is old enough to work, she will deliver it up to you. For her normal
female protective tendencies will have been lost in the original
breaking process. For example, take the case of the wild stud horse,
a female horse and an already infant horse and compare the breaking
process with two captured nigger males in their natural state, a
pregnant nigger woman with her infant offspring. Take the stud horse,
break him for limited containment. Completely break the female horse
until she becomes very gentle whereas you or anybody can ride her in
comfort. Breed the mare until you have the desired offspring. Then
you can turn the stud to freedom until you need him again. Train the
female horse whereby she will eat out of your hand, and she will
train the infant horse to eat of your hand also.

When it comes to breaking the uncivilized nigger, use the same
process, but vary the degree and step up the pressure so as to do a
complete reversal of the mind. Take the meanest and most restless
nigger, strip him of his clothes in front of the remaining niggers,
the female, and the nigger infant, tar and feather him, tie each leg
to a different horse faced in opposite directions, set him a fire and
beat both horses to pull him apart in front of the remaining niggers.
The next step is to take a bullwhip and beat the remaining nigger
male to the point of death in front of the female and the infant.
Don't kill him. But put the fear of God in him, for he can be useful
for future breeding.

THE BREAKING PROCESS OF THE AFRICAN WOMAN Take the female and run a
series of tests on her to see if she will submit to you desires
willingly. Test her in every way, because she is the most important
factor for good economic. If she shows any signs of resistance in
submitting completely to your will, do not hesitate to use the bull
whip on her to extract that last bit of bitch out of her. Take care
not to kill her, for in doing so, you spoil good economics. When in
complete submission, she will train her offspring in the early years
to submit to labor when they become of age. Understanding is the best
thing.

Therefore, we shall go deeper into this area of the subject matter
concerning what we have produced here in this breaking of the female
nigger. We have reversed the relationship. In her natural uncivilized
state she would have a strong dependency on the uncivilized nigger
male, and she would have a limited protective dependency toward her
independent male offspring and would raise female offspring to be
dependent like her. Nature had provided for this type of balance. We
reversed nature by burning and dependent like her. Nature had
provided for this type of balance. We reversed nature by burning and
pulling one civilized nigger apart and bull whipping the other to the
point of death--all in her presence. By her being left alone,
unprotected, with male image destroyed, the ordeal cased her to move
from her psychological dependent state to a frozen independent state.
In this frozen psychological state of independence she will raise her
male and female offspring in reversed roles. For fear of the young
male's life she will psychologically train him to be mentally weak
and dependent but physically strong. Because she has become
psychologically independent, she will train her female offspring to
be psychological independent as well. What have you got? You've got
the nigger woman out front and the nigger man behind and scared. This
is perfect situation for sound sleep and economics. Before the
breaking process, we had to be alert and on guard at all times. Now
we can sleep soundly, for out of frozen fear, his woman stand guard
for us. He cannot get past her early infant slave molding process. He
is good tool, now ready to be tied to the horse at a tender age. By
the time a nigger boy reaches the age of sixteen, he is soundly
broken in and ready for a long life of sound and efficient work and
the reproduction of a unit of good labor force.

Continually, through the breaking of uncivilized savage niggers, by
throwing the nigger female savage into a frozen psychological state
of independency, by killing the protective male image, and by
creating a submissive dependent mind of the nigger male slave, we
have created an orbiting cycle that turns on its own axis forever,
unless a phenomenon occurs and reshifts the positions of the male and
female savages. We show what we mean by example. We breed two nigger
males with two nigger females. Then we take the nigger males away
from them and keep them moving and working. Say the nigger female
bear a nigger female and the other bears a nigger male. both nigger
females, being without influence of the nigger male image, frozen
with an independent psychology, will raise him to be mentally
dependent and weak, but physically strong...in other words, body over
mind. We will mate and breed them and continue the cycle. That is
good, sound, and long range comprehensive planning.

WARNING: POSSIBLE INTERLOPING NEGATIVES Earlier, we talked about the
non-economic good of the horse and the nigger in their wild or
natural state; we talked out the principle of breaking and tying them
together for orderly production, furthermore, we talked about paying
particular attention to the female savage and her offspring for
orderly future planning; then more recently we stated that, by
reversing the positions of the male and female savages we had created
an orbiting cycle that turns on its own axis forever, unless
phenomenon occurred, and reshifted the positions of the male and
female savages.

Our experts warned us about the possibility of this phenomenon
occurring, for they say that the mind has a strong drive to correct
and recorrect itself over a period of time if it can touch some
substantial original historical base; and they advised us that the
best way to deal with phenomenon is to shave off the brute's mental
history and create a multiplicity of phenomenon or illusions so that
each illusion will twirl in its own orbit, something akin to floating
balls in a vacuum. This creation of a multiplicity of phenomenon or
illusions entails the principles of crossbreeding the nigger and the
horse as we stated above, the purpose of which is to create a
diversified division of labor. The result of which is severance of
the points of original beginning's for each spherical illusion. Since
we fell that the subject matter may get more complicated as we
proceed in laying down our economic plan concerning the purpose,
reason, and effect of cross-breeding horses and niggers, we shall lay
down the following definitional terms for future generations.

1. Orbiting cycle means a thing turning in a given pattern. 2. Axis
means upon which or around which a body turns. 3. Phenomenon means
something beyond ordinary conception and inspires awe and wonder. 4.
Multiplicity means a great number. 5. Sphere means a globe. 6. Cross-
breeding a horse means taking a horse and breeding it with an ass and
you get a dumb backward ass, longheaded mule that is not reproductive
nor productive by itself. 7. Cross-breeding niggers means taking so
many drops of good white blood and putting them into as many nigger
women as possible, varying the drops by the various tone that you
want, and then letting them breed with each other until cycle of
colors appear as you desire.

What this means is this: Put the niggers and the horse in the
breeding pot, mix some asses and some good white blood and what do
you get? You got a multiplicity of colors of ass backwards, unusual
niggers, running, tied to backwards ass longheaded mules, the one
productive of itself, the other sterile. (The one constant, the other
dying. We keep nigger constant for we may replace the mule for
another tool) both mule and nigger tied to each other, neither
knowing where the other came from and neither productive for itself,
nor without each other.

CONTROLLED LANGUAGE Cross-breeding completed, for further severance
from their original beginning, we must completely annihilate the
mother tongue of both the nigger and the new mule and institute a new
language that involves the new life's work of both. You know,
language is a peculiar institution. It leads to the heart of people.
the more a foreigner knows about the language of another country the
more he is able to move through all levels of that society.
Therefore, if the foreigner is an enemy of the country, to the extent
that he knows the body of the language, to that extent is the country
vulnerable to attack or invasion of a foreign culture. For example,
you take the slave, if you teach him all about your language, he will
know all your secrets, and he is then no more a slave, for you can't
fool him any longer and having a fool is one of the basic ingredients
of and incidents to the making of the slavery system.


By The Black Arcade Liberation Library; 1970 (recompiled and reedited
by Kenneth T. Spann

David Hume, "Of National Characters"

I am apt to suspect the negroes and in general all other species of
men (for there are four or five different kinds) to be naturally
inferior to the whites. There never was a civilized nation of any
other complexion than white, nor even any individual eminent either
in action or speculation. No ingenious manufactures amongst them, no
arts, no sciences. On the other hand, the most rude and barbarous of
the whites, such as the ancient GERMANS, the present TARTARS, have
still something eminent about them in their valour, form of
government, or some other particular. Such a uniform and constant
differences could not happen in so many countries and ages, if nature
had not made an original distinction betwixt these breeds of men. Not
to mention our colonies, there are Negroe slaves dispersed all over
Europe, of which none ever discovered any symptoms of ingenuity, tho'
low people, without education, will start up amonst us, and
distinguish themselves in every profession. In JAMAICA indeed they
talk of one negroe as a man of parts and learning; but 'tis likely he
is admired for very slender accomplishments like a parrot, who speaks
a few words plainly.

In the discourse of sensibility, this sort of racial discussion
becomes particularly charged. In other passages we've encountered
medical distinctions between more and less sensitive nervous systems,
ideas of darker, deranged sensibilities, and the nationalization of
certain sets of feeling. Cheyne's "English Malady," for instance,
demonstrates the degree to which sensibility could imagine the entire
range of feeling into a classed, nationalized discussion; if one were
melancholy or hypochondriacal outside of England, what sort of malady
would one have? In other words, melancholy and madness of an English
variety are understood within the total system of sensibilious
feeling; everything else is outside and other. Hume's essentializing
of racial difference (though it has little to do, finally, with his
philosophical beliefs) indicates the degree to which intellectual and
cultural sensitivity could be confused with a racialized physiology.

An Excerpt of Query XIV
from the
Notes on the State of Virginia (1781)
by Thomas Jefferson


It will probably be asked, Why not retain and incorporate the blacks
into the state, and thus save the expence of supplying, by
importation of white settlers, the vacancies they will leave? Deep
rooted prejudices entertained by the whites; ten thousand
recollections, by the blacks, of the injuries they have sustained;
new provocations; the real distinctions which nature has made; and
many other circumstances, will divide us into parties, and produce
convulsions which will probably never end but in the extermination of
the one or the other race. -- To these objections, which are
political, may be added others, which are physical and moral. The
first difference which strikes us is that of colour. Whether the
black of the negro resides in the reticular membrane between the skin
and scarf-skin, or in the scarf-skin itself; whether it proceeds from
the colour of the blood, the colour of the bile, or from that of some
other secretion, the difference is fixed in nature, and is as real as
if its seat and cause were better known to us. And is this difference
of no importance? Is it not the foundation of a greater or less share
of beauty in the two races? Are not the fine mixtures of red and
white, the expressions of every passion by greater or less suffusions
of colour in the one, preferable to that eternal monotony, which
reigns in the countenances, that immoveable veil of black which
covers all the emotions of the other race? Add to these, flowing
hair, a more elegant symmetry of form, their own judgment in favour
of the whites, declared by their preference of them, as uniformly as
is the preference of the Oranootan for the black women over those of
his own species. The circumstance of superior beauty, is thought
worthy attention in the propagation of our horses, dogs, and other
domestic animals; why not in that of man? Besides those of colour,
figure, and hair, there are other physical distinctions proving a
difference of race. They have less hair on the face and body. They
secrete less by the kidnies, and more by the glands of the skin,
which gives them a very strong and disagreeable odour. This greater
degree of transpiration renders them more tolerant of heat, and less
so of cold, than the whites. Perhaps too a difference of structure in
the pulmonary apparatus, which a late ingenious experimentalist has
discovered to be the principal regulator of animal heat, may have
disabled them from extricating, in the act of inspiration, so much of
that fluid from the outer air, or obliged them in expiration, to part
with more of it. They seem to require less sleep. A black, after hard
labour through the day, will be induced by the slightest amusements
to sit up till midnight, or later, though knowing he must be out with
the first dawn of the morning. They are at least as brave, and more
adventuresome. But this may perhaps proceed from a want of
forethought, which prevents their seeing a danger till it be present.
When present, they do not go through it with more coolness or
steadiness than the whites. They are more ardent after their female:
but love seems with them to be more an eager desire, than a tender
delicate mixture of sentiment and sensation. Their griefs are
transient. Those numberless afflictions, which render it doubtful
whether heaven has given life to us in mercy or in wrath, are less
felt, and sooner forgotten with them. In general, their existence
appears to participate more of sensation than reflection. To this
must be ascribed their disposition to sleep when abstracted from
their diversions, and unemployed in labour. An animal whose body is
at rest, and who does not reflect, must be disposed to sleep of
course. Comparing them by their faculties of memory, reason, and
imagination, it appears to me, that in memory they are equal to the
whites; in reason much inferior, as think one could scarcely be found
capable of tracing and comprehending the investigations of Euclid;
and that in imagination they are dull, tasteless, and anomalous. It
would be unfair to follow them to Africa for this investigation. We
will consider them here, on the same stage with the whites, and where
the facts are not apocryphal on which a judgment is to be formed. It
will be right to make great allowances for the difference of
condition, of education, of conversation, of the sphere in which they
move. Many millions of them have been brought to, and born in
America. Most of them indeed have been confined to tillage, to their
own homes, and their own society: yet many have been so situated,
that they might have availed themselves of the conversation of their
masters; many have been brought up to the handicraft arts, and from
that circumstance have always been associated with the whites. Some
have been liberally educated, and all have lived in countries where
the arts and sciences are cultivated to a considerable degree, and
have had before their eyes samples of the best works from abroad. The
Indians, with no advantages of this kind, will often carve figures on
their pipes not destitute of design and merit. They will crayon out
an animal, a plant, or a country, so as to prove the existence of a
germ in their minds which only wants cultivation. They astonish you
with strokes of the most sublime oratory; such as prove their reason
and sentiment strong, their imagination glowing and elevated. But
never yet could I find that a black had uttered a thought above the
level of plain narration; never see even an elementary trait, of
painting or sculpture. In music they are more generally gifted than
the whites with accurate ears for tune and time, and they have been
found capable of imagining a small catch. Whether they will be equal
to the composition of a more extensive run of melody, or of
complicated harmony, is yet to be proved. Misery is often the parent
of the most affecting touches in poetry. -- Among the blacks is
misery enough, God knows, but no poetry. Love is the peculiar
r&oe;strum of the poet. Their love is ardent, but it kindles the
senses only, not the imagination. Religion indeed has produced a
Phyllis Whately; but it could not produce a poet. The compositions
published under her name are below the dignity of criticism. The
heroes of the Dunciad are to her, as Hercules to the author of that
poem. Ignatius Sancho has approached nearer to merit in composition;
yet his letters do more honour to the heart than the head. They
breathe the purest effusions of friendship and general philanthropy,
and shew how great a degree of the latter may be compounded with
strong religious zeal. He is often happy in the turn ot his
compliments, and his stile is easy and familiar, except when he
affects a Shandean fabrication of words. But his imagination is wild
and extravagant, escapes incessantly from every restraint of reason
and taste, and, in the course of its vagaries, leaves a tract of
thought as incoherent and eccentric, as is the course of a meteor
through the sky. His subjects should often have led him to a process
of sober reasoning: yet we find him always substituting sentiment for
demonstration. Upon the whole, though we admit him to the first place
among those of his own colour who have presented themselves to the
public judgment, yet when we compare him with the writers of the race
among whom he lived, and particularly with the epistolary class, in
which he has taken his own stand, we are compelled to enroll him at
the bottom of the column. This criticism supposes the letters
published under his name to be genuine, and to have received
amendment from no other hand; points which would not be of easy
investigation. The improvement of the blacks in body and mind, in the
first instance of their mixture with the whites, has been observed by
every one, and proves that their inferiority is not the effect merely
of their condition of life. . . .

To justify a general conclusion, requires many observations, even
where the subject may be submitted to the Anatomical knife, to
Optical glasses, to analysis by fire, or by solvents. How much more
then where it is a faculty, not a substance, we are examining; where
it eludes the research of all the senses; where the conditions of its
existence are various and variously combined; where the effects of
those which are present or absent bid defiance to calculation; let me
add too, as a circumstance of great tenderness, where our conclusion
would degrade a whole race of men from the rank in the scale of
beings which their Creator may perhaps have given them. To our
reproach it must be said, that though for a century and a half we
have had under our eyes the races of black and of red men, they have
never yet been viewed by us as subjects of natural history. I advance
it therefore as a suspicion only, that the blacks, whether originally
a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstances, are
inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind. It is
not against experience to suppose, that different species of the same
genus, or varieties of the same species, may possess different
qualifications. Will not a lover of natural history then, one who
views the gradations in all the races of animals with the eye of
philosophy, excuse an effort to keep those in the department of man
as distinct as nature has formed them? This unfortunate difference of
colour, and perhaps of faculty, is a powerful obstacle to the
emancipation of these people. Many of their advocates, while they
wish to vindicate the liberty of human nature, are anxious also to
preserve its dignity and beauty. Some of these, embarrassed by the
question 'What further is to be done with them?' join themselves in
opposition with those who are actuated by sordid avarice only. Among
the Romans emancipation required but one effort. The slave, when made
free, might mix with, without staining the blood of his master. But
with us a second is necessary, unknown to history. When freed, he is
to be removed beyond the reach of mixture.

Petrus Camper On the Origin and Color of Blacks

Sciences, of any kind whatsoever, should be useful in a general way
as well as in a particular field. Anatomy, the knowledge of the human
body, would be, in my opinion, a narrow branch of learning if it had
no effect on other sciences besides Medicine and Surgery. Anatomy
constitutes the most distinguished part of the venerated Natural
Sciences, of Natural History, and offers an important basic principle
which serves as foundation for rational Religion. It sounds strange,
Honored Listeners, when one wants to make a hall intended for medical
lessons resound with the praise which the infinite Supreme Being
deserves. However, with the exception of the school of Theology,
where does one give ber, more solemn evidence of the great wisdom,
providence and unlimited power of God than in this Lecture Hall,
where the beauty and perfection of our ingenious and excellent
constitution are researched and displayed through the art of
Dissection? Particularly because not everyone can be convinced by the
bare force of reasoning, but all without exception are convinced by
the very sight of this wonderful Masterpiece that the Divine Creator
of this Treasure must be an infinitely wise, powerful and merciful
Being!

In my discourse I now could pass from the body to the soul and
perhaps not unduly describe in detail the amazing qualities of that
spiritual being; but who could treat in a profitable way, and to the
satisfaction of our fellow Citizens, a Subject which was not long ago
explicated to the point of perfection by one of our most renowned men
and treated with utmost clarity? Discussions about the soul must be
left to clever Philosophers and to them alone; we will limit
ourselves to discussing the coarser part of our being, namely the
body, and its mechanical structure, the skin, muscles and entrails!
These are parts whose beauty can be observed with the naked eye; yet,
they are worthy to be seen, for even in those lesser parts something
Divine always shines through.

In the past year, I planned to say something about the color of the
skin, in order to have the opportunity to discuss the skin of the
Moors, which at first glance appears so different from ours that many
people, but wrongly so, imagine that Blacks belonged to some
particular kind of species which did not descend from Adam. As an
introduction to these Anatomy classes, I intend to deal with this
peculiar phenomenon, to see if I can elucidate it here through the
revealed truths of our Religion: namely, that God created a single
human being in the beginning, Adam, to whom all of us, whatever our
shape or color may be, owe our origin. Many, who find pleasure in
doubting the most evident things, come up with all kinds of arguments
against this principle, arguments that will be brought to naught as
soon as I demonstrate that all of us are all black, only more or
less, and that this color difference can in no way prove that we do
not descend from the same Ancestors.

The subject itself has been treated with great interest for a long
time already, and the Ancients expressed their amazement about this
strange phenomenon, and judged unanimously that Whites are superior
creatures, and that they are of greater intelligence than Blacks!
Herodotus at first praises the Blacks, and is amazed that the
Ethiopians were such clever people, as Cambyses, King of Persia,
discovered. Called the Macrobii, or the long-lived, they even laughed
at Cambyses' envoys and ascribed to their bad habits the fact that
the Persians did not become older than eighty years, while they
themselves reached the age of at least one hundred and twenty years
by eating roasted meat and drinking milk. However, the same
Herodotus, who first recounted so many wonderful things about the
Ethiopians, disgraces himself by saying in the same third book,
dedicated to Thalia, in reference to the Indians: "All the Indians
that I described unite in public like animals, their color is as
awful as that of their neighbors, the Ethiopians. Their reproductive
fluid with which they impregnate the women, is not white like that of
all other people, but black, like the color of their skin, a liquid
resembling that dirty or noxious seed, which the Ethiopians also
eject." Who does not see that Herodotus, carried away by the
prejudices of his time, promoted such a detestable image, and a false
one as well! Aristotle himself could not resist from criticizing him:
in his Natural History of Animals he first affirms that the semen of
all Animals is white, then says that one must not believe Herodotus
at all when he relates that the Moors and the Ethiopians have black
semen. In contrast, to these same Ethiopians and Indians who
according to Herodotus in his Polymnia, differ from each other, not
only in language and hair ("In fact the sunrise Ethiopians have
flowing hair, Ethiopians from Africa have the frizziest hair of all
mankind"), [Aristotle] now ascribes heroic virtues, as well as the
praiseworthy custom and manly taste of clothing and adorning their
bodies in tiger and lion skins--garments, Listeners, that are more
dignified for warriors than the feathers and ermines which are worn
and seen perhaps too often nowadays. My indignation about Herodotus
will make You understand quite well how much more highly I think of
these black peoples, and that I am inclined to describe them as our
fellow men.

Strabo thinks much more rationally about the Indians, although the
scholars of his time also seem to have been deeply divided on the
problem. Indeed, Onesicritus wanted to attribute the black color to
hot water falling from the sky, an idea which Aristobulus flatly
contradicted. Theodectes attributed it to the burning sun, and
regarded the heat as the cause of that unpleasant hue. Meanwhile
Onesicritus denies this, because the children, he states, are already
black in the womb of their mothers, before the sun can shine on them;
this we will soon prove to be wrong. Strabo himself prefers to hail
the sun as the cause for the black color and the woolly hair, the
latter of which the Indians do not have, because they, according to
him, live in a humid region. Meanwhile he jumps over the issue under
consideration by saying: they become already black in the womb,
because the sperm has the power and nature to reproduce those who
made the children as they are. You clearly see, that he must have
shown how the first white human became black and got woolly hair, if
one wants to give precedence to the whites. Aristotle, always both
precise and witty in his arguments, attributes the blackness of the
Moors exclusively to the heat of the sun. And Galen, a steady admirer
of that great Philosopher, confirms, in his Book on the Temperaments,
this sensible and reasonable opinion. But Pliny, although he usually
copies Aristotle, relates, on the authority of others, that in
Thessaly there is a river with water that makes men and animals black
and curls their hair, but these are embellishments that are disputed
by many, and not without reason.

So much for the Ancients, who had little experience in the natural
sciences which now seem to have reached great heights. But, how can
one not be astounded that the world renowned Meckel, a man famous for
his great merits, for whom I have always shown the highest respect in
my Anatomy papers and classes, who moreover studied under the
supervision of the great Haller, dares to write in the year 1757 in
Berlin, "that Negroes seem to be a completely different kind of
species!" because their brains and their blood are black, which
causes their skin to turn black? The strangeness of seeing a Moor
must have surely inspired him with hatred and fear for their color—it
was [only] the second one that he had dissected. He probably would
have thought in a friendlier and more reasonable way if he, as we do
in our Country, had seen Blacks every day and had seen that whites,
men and women, however superior they may feel to those colored
people, do not judge them unworthy of their love. Santorinus, a
dissector of great fame, is preoccupied with another theory, namely
that the liver secretes a black substance under the Epidermis, as he
explains in the beginning of his book.

In the year 1758 in Amsterdam I had the opportunity to dissect a
black Angolese boy and I found his blood very much like ours and his
brains as white, if not whiter. When I dissected this body in public,
I examined it in a totally objective way and compared all the parts
with the famous description of the Bush-man or "Orang-Outang" of the
renowned Tyson. I must confess that I found nothing that had more in
common with this animal than with a white man; on the contrary,
everything was the same as for a white man. You ask, and rightly so,
why indeed the comparison with the Bush-man? That is simply,
Gentlemen, because there are Philosophers to be found who want to
show with some rhetorical flourish that Negroes and Blacks descended
from the mingling in olden times of white people with great Apes or
Orang-Outangs, which were called Satyrs by the Ancients. Dr. Tyson's
Dissection is very incomplete since the genitals are treated in a
superficial way, and that is where indeed the greatest difference
should be, if one may rely on Galen, who dissected Apes or animals of
the Monkey Species only.

Meanwhile you remain in uncertainty and wonder whether the black
color might not come from a kind of soot, a certain vitriol, or burnt
fat, as Brownius believed. He does not accept burning of the skin at
all as a cause, however probable it may be. Today we do not lack for
people who believe that we have natural mercury in our blood as well
as sulphur, both getting mixed in our body as in a mortar, thus
making a black dye and imparting that to the skin. I do not dare
reveal the discoverer of this miracle, for fear that you would lose
respect for his good name, which he otherwise rightly deserves.

Most likely you will prefer those conjectures which have direct
connections to the Holy Scripture. Labat, in his new description of
Africa thinks that Adam was dark brown or reddish and that the color,
blanched in Eve, consequently became whiter. Or that Cain, after
killing Abel, was made black on the spot by the incensed Supreme
Being so that he would be marked. But the great Flood and the single
surviving household of Noah, all of Seth's tribe, does not allow us
to believe this hypothesis. It has been said occasionally that Cham,
because he was cursed by his father Noah, changed in color and became
black. Whatever the case may be, it seems quite obvious that all
scholars, through their association of a very hateful image with the
color black, acted as if a certain well-deserved curse, or wrath of
the Divine Supreme Being, were the origin of the unfavorable color:
and usually, if not always, this one-sided and absurd account worked
in favor of the Whites, because they had devised it themselves and
thus had accorded themselves superiority over others of a different
color. What kind of an image must the poor Americans have conceived
of white people, after being treated by them in such an undeserved,
such a cruel and barbaric manner? Will they not believe that the God
of heaven and earth changed those brutes, as a permanent sign of his
righteous wrath, into white people? This digression causes you to
blush, and not without cause. All of us, not only as human beings but
as Christians, would wish to be black if we could wash off this sin
through such a change in color.

Let us rather backtrack: we must get to know Blacks better and
therefore observe, as Maupertuis does in his clever work entitled La
Venus Physique: 1) That from the tropic of Cancer to that of
Capricorn, Africa has only black inhabitants, whose noses are wide
and flat, lips thick, and hair woolly. 2) When we go to the point of
Africa, the Cape of Good Hope, which is towards the South Pole, then
we find that the faces of these people, which we consider ugly, stay
the same, but that the color gets lighter. 3) Towards the east, the
inhabitants have features that are more beautiful but they are just
as black. 4) In the south the color lessens and becomes brown,
yellowish red, etc. the eyes become small and narrow, but the bodies
are tall. 5) People become smaller towards the North Pole, so that
the inhabitants of the Davis Strait and the Lapps are the smallest.
It is noteworthy that all the people who live in the Torrid Zone, in
America, in Africa as well as in Asia, are completely black or brown.
As soon as one moves away from the Equator, people become whiter
until one finds the whitest in Denmark. The renowned and astute
Buffon, the greatest Naturalist of this century, has worked this out
very precisely in the third volume of his Natural History. Meanwhile
one finds white Negroes; they are those who are begotten by black
parents, but are born white and stay that way, as Labat affirms. One,
as witnessed by Maupertuis, was brought to Paris in 1744. He was a
boy of about five years, born to very black parents, who had white
woolly hair, pinkish, blue eyes, etc. One could ascribe this to a
malady in the fluids, because something similar happens also among
us. I remember seeing two sons of very white parents, having studied
with them in Leyden, of whom one was as brown as a Mulatto, the other
as white as a Danish Damsel.

From what I have just noted in general, it seems obvious that the
heat of the region where we live is the cause of the color; but it
takes many centuries for completely white people brought into a
tropical zone to turn totally black, as the great Buffon rightly
remarks. Therefore when one says that our countrymen, who have lived
a long time in the East or West Indies, do not become black, that
fact is no proof. We have had our colonies in the tropics too short a
time to be able to judge. In my opinion, it is likely that our
descendants there would become pitch black if they lived there
continually for a thousand years, and that the Angolese Negroes will
turn white after a similar stay among us in Europe. Absolute Rulers
are in the unique position to have this tested by imposing and
enforcing inviolable laws, but we will not live to see the outcome.

Woolly hair is not an important consideration. The incomparable
Buffon says that men can be found in France with curly hair almost as
woolly as that of Negroes. Among us it is rare. Nevertheless, I
believe I have seen the same. What can be said about color, which is
nothing but a particular reflection of beams of light? Is a person of
another race when, tanned in the summer by the sun, he has become
blackish? Does his individuality change when after a long winter he
becomes pale, or after having been restricted to his house for a
year, he becomes white? Maybe a comparison, though taken from
animals, will clear up the problem. The hares in Russia and Sweden
are grey in the summer and lily white in the winter, as Linnaeus
notices. Are they therefore not the same animals? When we see
different people who are less black than their neighbors, it proves
that they are settlers from the North; or when we Northerners see
among us people darker than we are, it proves that they came from the
South. Let us take the ancient Jewish nation as an example; the group
which stayed in Spain and Portugal is quite darker than those who
have been living for many centuries in Bohemia, or further North in
Silesia or Poland. The color, eyes, features of the mouth, will
enable you to recognize among thousands of that race from which
Country they came; nobody, however, would think so wrongly as to
conclude that they did not sprout from the same branch.

We will forthwith examine the origin of blackness; but I first want
to say something about the appearance. Blacks have a wide and flat
nose, thick lips. Many Travelers have asserted, and on the basis of
that authority many Naturalists say so as well, that they push in the
nose of their children, and give it this form. The truth is far from
that! Aside from the fact that they are already shaped like that in
the womb, the form depends only on the projection of the upper and
lower jaws, and that is how the nose becomes flat and small by itself
and the lips thick. How could they cover the teeth otherwise? Don't
we see a comparable difference of form in the heads of all white
nations, without doubting that they come from one and the same Adam?
Why then would we consider the difference of color, since it requires
only a small change in the fine skin or epidermis which covers the
body?

Food alone changes appearance: in the countryside people are always
less comely, less attractive than in the cities. Maupertuis claims
that nowhere does one find more beautiful women than in Paris,
apparently not only because of their upbringing, but because the
meals are better there. One of my friends, a very knowledgeable man,
and an exceptional observer, remarked years ago that Westphalian
servants, whose features, hair and color are ugly when they first
arrive, improve considerably in Amsterdam in six years time through
better food, and get better color, finer skin and curly hair. If such
changes can come about in a few years, if our Countrymen, who have
lived in hot regions, can never get their white skin back, although
they have come home, how much more certainly will this color pass on
from generation to generation when the settlement lasts for
centuries?

I must curtail myself as much as possible, for fear of spending too
much time on this subject, but otherwise I could show with great
probability of truth that the Americans are settlers who, after
arriving from Northern Europe and Asia, multiplied; and, as Buffon
correctly notes, they moved to the south to avoid the cold, losing
their lightly tanned color as they resided in warmer regions. It is
probable that these Settlers came there many Centuries ago. The proof
lies in the small number of people who lived in the great expanse of
America, and in their savage customs and manners. There may be a few
exceptions, people who perhaps descend from very civilized peoples in
Europe, and who, having landed by shipwreck, multiplied, and in the
course of time lost the civilization of their first forefathers. All
Islands in far-off seas were populated in the same way; and there
remains no doubt that all races, spread over this Globe, descend from
the same human couple who formerly lived in Paradise!

I will now proceed in an orderly way to pinpoint the source of
blackness in the Moors, and first demonstrate to you: this child,
which, although a foetus, is born of a Angolese Negro woman, whose
husband was just as black. You see that the skin is white over the
entire body, and therefore that the children are not black in the
womb as Strabo believed. You also see that the nose, lips, the whole
being are of the same form as that of adult Blacks. Be convinced
therefore that the nose is not pushed in at birth, but that such a
prematurely born creature already has all the features of his race.
Buffon noticed rightly, that the children of Negroes are born white
or rather reddish, like ours, and that they become brown a few days
later and then black. However, it is to be noted that very soon after
birth they have black skin around their nails and also on the circle
around the nipples. But the genital area only becomes black on the
third day and not at birth. I saw this in Amsterdam. A boy was born
to a Negro woman who was very black; the third day the genitals were
coal black and the nail-edges, and the circles around the nipples
also. The fifth and sixth day the blackness spread over the whole
body, and the boy, who had not been in the sun, but had been born in
the winter in a closed room, and had been swaddled tightly according
to local practice, still changed color and became black over his
entire body, except for the balls of his feet and the palms of his
hands, which are always paler and stay quite white among working
Negroes.

Look here at the skin of this black boy, whose skull I show you also.
You clearly see that the skin is, in itself, perfectly white, that it
is covered by a second layer, which is called the Reticulum, and that
this layer is actually black, brown, red-copperish or tanned. On top
of this is another layer, which is the outer layer of the skin, which
the renowned W. Hunter in London quite rightly compared to a thin
glazing covering the colored layer, or to a varnish preserving it.
This colored layer is manufactured by the vessels of the skin and one
can see the fibers very clearly in the hand and foot when one removes
the outer layer of the skin carefully after a long decay or when one
soaks the skin in hot water. Never ever have blood-vessels been found
there that could be filled artificially, contrary to what some have
professed. Ruysch has denied seeing them, Hunter never saw them, but
he did see the fibers, which run from the skin to the epidermis like
a spiderweb, which he depicts, and which I have often shown to my
Students.

Judge now, Listeners! If this white skin from the Moor is a proof of
black blood, of sulphur, mercury or soot, flowing in their veins! You
see that the epidermis can be divided into two membranes, into more
even, and the one that lies directly on the skin, is black, and that
the outer one is transparent; so that it seems more or less colored
by the same blackness. See here! A big piece of skin taken by me in
Amsterdam from the arm of an Italian sailor. You see that the name
and skull was branded in blue upon the true skin, and not the
Cuticula or outer layer of skin. You clearly see the brown membrane
quite similar to that of Blacks and the totally removed outer
membrane that is transparent and hardly colored!

I show You furthermore a piece of skin taken from the side of the
breast of a very white woman. You see on top of the true white skin a
tanned layer and on top of that, but now removed, a transparent
membrane. Does it not follow from all this that we, just like Blacks
and tanned Italians, have a colored membrane located under the outer
layer of skin, and right on top of the true skin just like the Moors
do? When this second layer is completely without color, then we are
very white and pale: that is to say, we are white Moors, or rather;
we are people similar to Blacks in every way except that we have this
middle layer less tanned. This black skin, or this second or middle
layer, when injured, never grows back the same as it was before but
stays white, as I demonstrate to you in a piece of skin from the
shin. It is just the same with us when we have scars, they stay
white, as can be seen most often on those that are pock-marked. The
same is the case with black animals, please excuse the comparison. A
black horse, having lost hair through abrasions, burns, or ulcers,
always gets white hair in its place. That slight and subtle
something, which changes the color of our outer skin and hair into
black, seems to be strained from our blood most often in the prime of
youth: that is why we become gray and get white silvery hair, which
is the most beautiful jewel of advanced age.

It is not merely the sun which is the cause of the darkness of our
skin, although it has more to do with it than anything else. Our
privy parts, which modesty teaches us to cover, have a second layer
in their skin which is quite brown, even among the whitest people.
Many women see the lower part of their body and the circles around
the nipples become completely black whenever they are pregnant. When
we become thin and waste away, our skin becomes sufficiently black to
bring about a proverb, "to be black from emaciation"; and indeed one
often sees this happen. In contrast, the skin becomes whiter when it
is made smoother and stretched by plumpness.

I deem it sufficient to have shown through physical examination of
our body and especially of our skin that there is not any reason why
we should not consider the race of the Moors to be descended like
ours from Adam. Be Adam created black, brown, tanned or white, his
descendants, as soon as they spread out over the wide surface of the
earth, necessarily had to change in color and shape according to how
the country, the particular foods and illnesses differed. In many, an
accidental variation was passed on through heredity, as we still see
happen daily. A mixture of two very different types of people could
not but produce a third type, which carried on something from both
and which could only be changed in the course of several centuries.
Remember from ancient history how the peoples from the North invaded
Europe, all the way to the South; how those in Asia spread
Northwards, how the Africans and Moors occupied a part of Europe, so
that in Portugal and Spain entire recognizable groups of these can
still be found. How on the contrary, we explored the remotest coasts
of Asia, Africa and America, which are presently populated by Whites.
What a mixture would come out of that? And how different must the
color be in our Commonwealth, where scarcely a family can be found
which is not linked through various marriages to a great number of
nations and has kept a confusing mixture of their features and color?

Read, in case you may want to know more about it and make the
examples that I showed you of Moors become clear in your mind, the
excellent discourse of the great Albinus on the cause and origin of
the color of Blacks and other people. Read what Littre, that renowned
Member of the Royal French Academy, left us in writing in the
proceedings of the year 1702; leaf through the quoted work of the
incomparable Maupertuis, and in particular the Natural History of
Mankind by the immortal Buffon, published in his third Volume of the
Royal Natural History Collection. Add to that the Observations of the
talented Le Cat; and You will no longer raise any objections to
joining me in holding out the hand of brotherhood to Negroes and
Blacks, and in recognizing them as true descendants of the first man
whom we all recognize as our Father!

I have spoken.

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