Cortes y la Malinche
San Ildefonso. México
Aut. José Clemente Orozco
DOES THE FOLLOWING SOUNDS FAMILIAR? 90-95 % OF THE
POPULATION OF MEXICO PERISH? THERE ARE NO MORE MEXICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLES BUT JUST MESTIZOS?
LA RAZA COSMICA IS A MYTH!
The story is about the Indian Tizoc (Pedro Infante) who falls passionately in love with a white girl (Maria Félix) whom
he mistakes for the Virgin Mary. He thinks that she has agreed to marry him when she hands him her handkerchief (a symbol
of commitment in his culture). The story, of course, ends tragically for all involved with the girl accidentally killed and
Tizoc committing suicide with the same arrow so that their souls can enter two doves and continue to sing to "Tata Dios."
La historia de un indio que da la vida por amor a una mujer blanca, confundiéndola por su
belleza con la Vírgen María, luchando contra la sociedad, los prejuicios y la raza. El cree que ella se va a casar con él
cuando ella le regala su pañuelo, costumbre dentro de su pueblo indio. La mujer muere accidentalmente a causa de una flecha
y el indio con esa misma flecha se suicida para que sus almas sigan juntas en el más allá cantándole a Tata Dios.
'Te quiero más que a mis ojos'
* (Raúl Lavista)
* ACORDES DE PEDRO INFANTE
quero más que a mis ojo,
más que a mis ojo ti quero,
pero quero más a mis ojo,
pero quero más a mis ojo
mis ojo ti veron.
Y si tú los queres
te los entriego niña
pos ya sabes que eres tú
para quin quero mis ojo.
quero más que a mis ojo,
más que a mis ojo ti quero,
pero quero más a mis ojo,
pero quero más a mis ojo
mis ojo ti veron.
The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations,
Mexico came under Spanish rule for three centuries before achieving independence early in the 19th century. A devaluation
of the peso in late 1994 threw Mexico into economic turmoil, triggering the worst recession in over half a century. The nation
continues to make an impressive recovery. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for
a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely
Amerindian population in the
impoverished southern states.
mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%
nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%, other 5%
Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages
16 September 1810 (from Spain)
Because a majority of its inhabitants are Indians, Guatemala is also one of the saddest countries in the world. Officially
these small, brown, peaceful, resigned, and often drunk men make up 53 percent of the population. But they make up more
than 70 percent if we take into account all those who, on leaving their mountains, call themselves 'ladinos', mestizos, and
live in the cities. Despite their name not a single drop of Spanish blood runs in their veins and they have lost their
tribal structures and their community-owned lands.
MODERN WARFARE: A French View of Counterinsurgency
. . . .
For the purposes of this article the word mestizo will be used as the equivalent of
all such words. It should be kept in mind that there are several distinct ways in which the term mestizo is used:
As a simple description- a person, or a group, who possesses a recent mixed background;
(2) As a kind permanent ethnic
or caste categorization- a person, or a group, who is not only of mixed background but whose ethnic nature, or social status,
is also mixed;
(3) As a strictly biological concept, referring
only to mixture through sexual reproduction;
(4) As a cultural concept, referring to a mixture of customs,
ways of behaving, and so on.
"In Mexico an indio who puts on shoes, learns Spanish, and moves to a larger city becomes
a non-Indian (he becomes mestizo or a Mexicano).
In Peru an Anishinabe woman who sets up a small shop becomes a chola.
She is no longer an india.
In Guatemala a Cakchiquel who learns Spanish and moves to the city
becomes a ladino.
He is no longer indio.
In Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, and elsewhere, millions of people who were indios just a few
years ago are now officially campesinos. Bolivia has no more Anishinabegs, only peasants.
In Brazil an Indian who takes up farming away from a tribal village
becomes a caboclo
or perhaps a mestizo or simply a Brazilian peasant.
In the United States an Indian whose reservation is terminated
In Canada an Indian whose group never signed a treaty or received a
In the United States many Chicanos of unmixed physical appearance are classified as whites
with Spanish surnames.
In Mexico a man of complete Indian appearance who wears a suit, has a college education, and
speaks Spanish has to be mestizo, since he
could never be an indio."
HERE IS A BOOK THAT DEALS WITH THE MYTH OF THE
Brave New World
by Aldous Huxley
http://www.huxley.net/bnw/The story concerns Bernard, an alpha whose programming is a bit off--
is discontented and desires to spend time alone just thinking or
looking at the stars. At one point he takes Lenina on
a vacation to
the savage reservation in New Mexico. There he discovers John (the
Savage), son of Linda who had visited
the reservation more than 20
years previously and was accidentally left behind. When she
discovered she was pregnant
(the ultimate humiliation!), she had to
remain among the savages. John returns to the Brave New World where
he is feted
as the Visiting Savage. However, he cannot adapt to this
totally alien society and, ultimately, he takes his own life.
here is a film that deals with both the "Vanishing myth" and
the "Pueblo Revolt of 1860":
PBS/The Institute of American Indian Arts, 1992
Acoma Pueblo, Santa Clara Pueblo, San Juan Pueblo, Taos
Director: Diane Reyna
Cast: Host: Conroy Chino
Columbus won the 1993 George Foster Peabody Award, and the
Ohio State Awards, 1994.
HERE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A MOVIE DEPICTING VERY
CLEARLY THE IDEA OF THE AMERINDIAN AS A DYING RACE:
The Last of the Mohicans
YES, 'THE LAST OF THE MOHICANS' JUST AS 'THE LAST SAMURAI' IS ALSO A WHITE MAN!
The Myth of the Vanishing Race
By David R.M. Beck
Associate Professor, Native American Studies, University of Montana
By the early 20th century, when Edward Curtis began the work on what came to be the
twenty-volume publication featured on this
website, American Indian nations and people were largely viewed by scholars, government officials
and the public at large as a vanishing race. This belief was buttressed by two scholarly theories: 1) the view that America's
continental "Manifest Destiny" was successfully completed in geographic terms, that the "frontier" had been closed by Euro-American
expansion into every part of this nation; and 2) Social Darwinism, which posited that cultures battled with each other in
an evolutionary contest in which one was destined to triumph and the other to fade into extinction. This theory dovetailed
both with demographic evidence, embodied in a precipitous drop in Native populations, and with the federal policy of forced
assimilation, which even most supporters of Indian people believed to be the only hope for Indian survival in the new century.
In popular terms, these views were reinforced in wild west shows, world fairs, art, literature and a variety of other venues,
all of which helped lay the foundations for the American public's long-standing misinterpretation of American Indians.
By Curtis's time American Indians had endured a highly destructive, centuries-long assault on their homelands, their societies,
and their cultures in physical, spiritual, and emotional terms. Under the guise first of religion and then science, Euro-American
invaders had stripped the indigenous communities of this continent of nearly all of their land and resources, and carried
forth an all-out attack on their languages, religions, educational systems, family structures, and systems of governance.
For centuries missionaries, soldiers and government officials led this assault. By Curtis's time, humanitarian reformers,
social and physical scientists, and artists lent their authority to these efforts as well.
Rapid population decline followed, and sometimes preceded, Euro-American invaders, caused not only by warfare and capture
for slavery, but by diseases which Europeans had brought to this continent. The combination of violence and disease caused
some tribal communities to lose as much as ninety percent of their member populations. As wave after wave of disease hit at
times of early contact, communities might lose a quarter to a third of their populations time and again. This type of population
loss continued well into the nineteenth century, as western tribes had first contact with Euro-Americans, and as eastern tribes
were forced one after another to remove from their homelands to west of the Mississippi, with conditions weakening old and
young alike, making them more susceptible to starvation and disease. All in all, a land that may well have held seven to ten
million American Indians at the time of Columbus's arrival contained approximately a quarter of a million by 1900.
Myth of "The Vanishing Race" Endures
This imagery had long been a part of popular culture, but the massacre at Wounded Knee in 1890 and the end of the Plains
Indian wars, Frederick Jackson Turner's 1893 announcement that the American Frontier had closed, and the federal attempts
to forcefully eradicate Indian culture and assimilate Indians into American society all converged in the late 19th
and early 20th centuries to firmly cement that imagery as a myth of a vanishing race, with the notion that Indians
are historical features of an American landscape, not functioning members in a modern society. Ironically the federal policy
of forced assimilation was in itself a recognition that Indians had not disappeared from America, and the official reversal
of that policy in the 1930s, however effective or ineffective that reversal may be judged to be, was also an acknowledgement
that Indians had not vanished as either a people or as political communities. Indian cultures, though badly damaged by all
of this, managed to survive in reality, but not in the mythology of the larger culture. It was within the context of this
mythology that Curtis took these photos, and his doing so contributed in no small way to the continued pervasive presence
of the myth of the vanishing race in American society even into the present time.
You Can Read the article in its entirity by clicking:
Stolen Continents: The "New World" Through Indian Eyes. by Ronald Wright.
Notes by Dr. Steve Collins, for North American Indians, SO-126.
Part 3: Rebirth.
In 1810, father Miguel Hidalgo asked his countrymen, over half of whom were Indian, "Will you free yourselves?"
as he waved the Banner of Tonantzin-Guadalupe. He wanted to recover the land that had been stolen three hundred years earlier.
He had an army of 80,000 troops. But he waited. Had he attacked immediately he might have won. He was captured and died before
a firing squad in 1811.
In 1815, Jose Maria Morelos, a more radical priest shouted the names of Moctezuma and cuauhtemoc and for a time
controlled part of the Empire. But he too was shot in 1815.
Benito Juarez, born in Oaxaca in 1806, was a Zapotec. First Indian leader since pre-colonial times. Hernan Cortez
had made Oaxaca his personal fiefdom. Juarez, who became a Lawyer and congressman introduced a bill to confiscate Cortez
land for the state, and fought for Indian rights in the courts. (244). Juarez further abolishes military/church immunity
from court suit. In retaliation conservatives pass Lerdo Law which abolishes communal property. Civil war emerges
in 1858 and in 1861 Juarez becomes President.
(MALINCHISMO= after Cortez's mistress, it means a desire for anything foreign.)
Post-Revolutionary Mexico - The Mexican Revolution as Myth and Memory
Mestizaje, Indigenismo, and Nationalism
a fluid category
Biological racism was abandoned
Indigenismo: defense of Indigenous culture (Manuel
Caso, José Vasconcelos, Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán, Moisés Saenz)
Urban, non Indian intellectuals
(Indigenismo was not an "Indigenous"
Sought to protect Indians from abuse
racist, and homogenizing views of Indians
Purpose: Assimilation, integration
Mestizaje was glorified
as the new "racial" synthesis
Mestizos were deemed "better" than "pure" species
Mexico as a "mestizo" nation; mestizaje as the "carrier of the
national culture of the future"
Mexican mestizo nation as a product of the revolution
The role of education in the creation of the new Mexican
Secretaría de Educación Pública (SEP): powerful centralizing tool,
established in 1921; José
Vasconcelos, director (1921-24)
Between 1921 and 1940: extended jurisdiction from capital to states;
12,561 rural primary schools, 720,000 students
After 1930, emphasis was in the rural areas
Rural primary teachers:
from 6,504 in 1930 to 19,134 in 1940
Enrollment in public primary schools: 34% in 1928; 54% in 1940
1930: textbooks began to present the official views of
the post-revolutionary state
and other agents constructed the revolution as a
popular movement against Porfirio Díaz's dictatorship
heroes (Zapata, Villa, Carranza)
[75th anniversary coin]
Rebellion and struggle for social justice were emphasized
the focus to the countryside
Rejected religious "superstition" and priests' exploitative practices
a role in the construction of the fatherland
Used popular music to disseminate ideas; compiled folklore and
Culturales" and "Escuelas Rurales Normales" were created;
magazines such as "El maestro rural"
A "national" (mestizo)
culture was celebrated and disseminated
(the "browning of Mexican culture")
Teachers were agents of the state, the
party, and the "nation"
(likened to missionaries)
"Confederación Nacional de Trabajadores de la Educación" (1932)
"socialist" education (teachers as agents of radical
agrarismo, vanguard of the agrarian reform)
Education in practice
was not exempt of cultural and political
conflict and contestation (Cristeros vs. teachers, teachers vs.
leaders vs. state authorities)
The Muralist Movement
David Alfaro Siqueiros
"They are makers of the Revolution. They have given the Revolution
corporeal form …
captured by the senses" (Roberto de la Selva, 1936).
José Vasconcelos (1929):
"In Mexico I had
success in establishing the state as patron, and
the state has its own philosophy, no matter how mediocre it might
The State is short sighted and sectarian, serves the party and
not the people, but nevertheless is better than the commercial
of exhausted Paris "schools". The majority of artists in my
time voluntarily accepted the guidance of their official patron,
true to his duty gave them not only economic support, but a fixed
route for their creation."