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Jose Ortega Y Gasset: On Plato's 'Republic' and On Forms of Government
Cultural Extremists
On the 'Nican Tlaca' Enigma
The Myth of the Vanishing Race
The Mestizo Concept: A Product of European Imperialism
El concepto de indio en América
OBITUARIES: G. Tantaquidgeon, 106
Christopher Columbus - on trial
Charioteer of the Gods/ Alien Versus Predator
The International Jew
On The Jewish Question
Anthropophagy: TRUE CANNIBALISM!
On Human Sacrifice
Sacrificios Humanos entre los Mexicas, Realidad o Fantasia?
Sacrificios Humanos
Death Be Not Strange
Jack D. Forbes: Eurocentric Concepts Harm Native People and What Do We Mean By America and American
Contra la deformación histórica-cultural
Nuestra Cultura Indígena
On the Spanish Catholic Inquisition
Myths of the Spaniards and Puritans
On the behavior of the Europeans toward the Native Americans
The Role of Disease in 'Conquest'
Germs, Plagues, Famine, Invasion, Friars, And Native Allies!
"Religious Aspects of the Conquest of Mexico"
There is no word for 'Devil' in the Nahuatl Language
Origins of First Americans Research
Links to Further research On the Origins of the First Americans
The Finding and Founding of Tenochtitlan
Attack on the Copernican Theory
Of the basis which the Indians have for worshipping the sun
ADDENDUM II: The Florentine Codex
Rabinal Achi: Act Four--Inside the Fortress
Cultural Visibility and the Cora
Los Voladores and the Return of the Ancestors
War Songs of the Tenochka
Cantares Mexicanos
Viva Mi General Francisco Villa!
In Spirit of Agustin Lorenzo
Corridos y Canciones del Pueblo
Poems & Speeches & Prayers & the Enemy Invasion
Second Chapter, Which Telleth of the Moon
Men Who Became Gods!
The Mexica or Mexiti
In Ixiptla In Teteo!
Teotecpillatolli: Noble Sacred Speech
Nahua Invocations
Cuento: La llorona
Puerta del Diablo: El Salvador
Moctezuma el Magnifico y la Invasion de Anahuak
In Blood and Fire!!
Excerpts of the Geneva Protocols
Amendment V, and The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 18
Paper Wars
The Defense of Duffer's Drift
The Battle of the Bulge
Truth and Falsehood in War-Time
The Bryce Report
Sun Tzu: Arte de Guerra
Sun Tzu: On Spies
We Believe and Profess
Mushashi: Cinco Anillos
Sixth Chapter, which telleth of the men, the valiant men
Seeds of Revolt in the Americas: Synopsis
'Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders' & 'License To Kill'
Jose Ortega Y Gasset: On Plato's 'Republic' and On Forms of Government
Thomas Paine (17371809). Common Sense. 1776 [Excerpts]
Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality
Introduction to Deloria's "We Talk, You Listen"
My Tayta Jose Maria and the Indian aspect of the Peruvian Revolution
Philip Deere, Longest Walk speech
Bacbi'awak: 'Made To Die'
Born Gods!
Prologue: "The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Life-ways"
Black Elk Speaks: Visions of the Other World
Miantinomo, Acuera, and Tecumseh, Hatuey Speaks
Chief Seattle Speaks
Chief Red Cloud Speaks
Hopi: A Message for All People
On Judeo-Christianity
"LET'S MAKE A SLAVE" by Willie Lynch
On Slavery
On Indian Casinos
¿Quién Gobierna el Mundo?
Frida Kahlo is Not Our Hero!
Links to Movies and Films
General Links to Musica del Pueblo (Songs and Music Videos)
General Philosophy & Mytho-Religious Links
Links to Online Magazines and Newspaper
Researchers Tools and Links
Links to General Science, Almanacs & Geography
Search Engines
Literature & Biography Links
Links to Art, Architecture, & Museums
LINKS to Political and Cultural Pro-American-Indigenous Organizations

. . .

After Plato, Aristotle models the expression of this experience even more acutely, but he does not reshape it. He discovers nothing new, nor had Plato. And this is what seems strange to me--that no one has noted how the dominating image in the last years of the ancient world had so humble an origin. After Aristotle comes his stupendous disciple Dicearchus, a specialist in politics, who, because of that bad fortune which preserves the unreadable works and destroys the best ones, left us no books. He did, however, give his thoughts a formula, probably the most complete one, which Polybius received from him and in turn transmitted to Cicero; this represents the consequence of all ancient learning, because this man, in spite of being a politician, had an incalculable capacity for reflective thought, which you can fin in his 'Treatise on the Republic.'

This cocept of the whole historic process for a thousand years and more had been decanted and precipitated bit by bit into Greek and Roman consciousness. It is composed of three great ideas or images. The first is this: the experience that every government carries within itself its own congenital vice, and therefore it inevitably degenerates. This degeneration produces an uprising, which overthrows the constitution, topples that form of government, and in its place substitutes another, which in its turn degenerates, is rebelled against and replaced, and so on. For a short time there was a discussion of what was the exact line of precedence and subsequence in the inexorable move from one form of government to another. For example, Aristotle argues this point with Plato but finally arrives at a kind of canonical doctrine of political thought which comes to this: the oldest and purest institution is the monarchy, but it degenerates into absolute power which provokes the rebellion of the most powerful men, that is to say, the aristocrats, who overthrow the monarchy and set up an aristocratic constitution. The aristocracy in turn degenerates into Oligarchy, and this provokes and uprising of the people who throw out the oligarchs and set up a Democracy. But democracy quickly becomes pure disorder and anarchy, swayed by demagogues, and ending by being the brutal oppression of the masses which were then called--I am merely translating--the
rabble, 'Okhlos', and thence Okhlocracy. The prevailing anarchy then reaches such a degree that one of the demagogues, the most successful or the most powerful, seizes power and establishes a tyranny; if this tyranny lasts, it is converted into monarchy; then the institution come to bite each other's tails and the cycle of evolution begins all over again.

Taken from: An Interpretation of Universal History.  Trans. Mildred Adams. New York: Norton, 1973.


To Understand what Ortega Y Gasset is saying, read the following:

Cliff Notes to Plato's Republic' Books VI, and VII:
Book VI:

Book VII:

The Republic

By Plato

Written 360 B.C.E

Translated by Benjamin Jowett

Table of Contents

Book VI


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