|On the 'Nican Tlaca' Enigma
|The Myth of the Vanishing Race
|The Mestizo Concept: A Product of European Imperialism
|El concepto de indio en América
|OBITUARIES: G. Tantaquidgeon, 106
|HOW COLUMBUS CREATED THE CANNIBALS
|Christopher Columbus - on trial
|Charioteer of the Gods/ Alien Versus Predator
|The International Jew
|On The Jewish Question
|Anthropophagy: TRUE CANNIBALISM!
|On Human Sacrifice
|Sacrificios Humanos entre los Mexicas, Realidad o Fantasia?
|Death Be Not Strange
|Jack D. Forbes: Eurocentric Concepts Harm Native People and What Do We Mean By America and American
|Contra la deformación histórica-cultural
|Nuestra Cultura Indígena
|On the Spanish Catholic Inquisition
|Myths of the Spaniards and Puritans
|On the behavior of the Europeans toward the Native Americans
|The Role of Disease in 'Conquest'
|Germs, Plagues, Famine, Invasion, Friars, And Native Allies!
|"Religious Aspects of the Conquest of Mexico"
|There is no word for 'Devil' in the Nahuatl Language
|Origins of First Americans Research
|Links to Further research On the Origins of the First Americans
|The Finding and Founding of Tenochtitlan
|Attack on the Copernican Theory
|Of the basis which the Indians have for worshipping the sun
|ADDENDUM II: The Florentine Codex
|Rabinal Achi: Act Four--Inside the Fortress
|Cultural Visibility and the Cora
|Los Voladores and the Return of the Ancestors
|War Songs of the Tenochka
|Viva Mi General Francisco Villa!
|In Spirit of Agustin Lorenzo
|Corridos y Canciones del Pueblo
|Poems & Speeches & Prayers & the Enemy Invasion
|Second Chapter, Which Telleth of the Moon
|Men Who Became Gods!
|The Mexica or Mexiti
|EL TLACUACHE Y EL COYOTE
|In Ixiptla In Teteo!
|Teotecpillatolli: Noble Sacred Speech
|Cuento: La llorona
|Puerta del Diablo: El Salvador
|Moctezuma el Magnifico y la Invasion de Anahuak
|In Blood and Fire!!
|Excerpts of the Geneva Protocols
|Amendment V, and The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 18
|The Defense of Duffer's Drift
|The Battle of the Bulge
|Truth and Falsehood in War-Time
|The Bryce Report
|Sun Tzu: Arte de Guerra
|Sun Tzu: On Spies
|We Believe and Profess
|Mushashi: Cinco Anillos
|Sixth Chapter, which telleth of the men, the valiant men
|Seeds of Revolt in the Americas: Synopsis
|'Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders' & 'License To Kill'
|CALIFORNIA SENATE BILL No. 670
|Jose Ortega Y Gasset: On Plato's 'Republic' and On Forms of Government
|Thomas Paine (17371809). Common Sense. 1776 [Excerpts]
|Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality
|Introduction to Deloria's "We Talk, You Listen"
|My Tayta Jose Maria and the Indian aspect of the Peruvian Revolution
|TO THE SUNDANCE NATIONS OF THE GREAT PLAINS
|Philip Deere, Longest Walk speech
|Bacbi'awak: 'Made To Die'
|Prologue: "The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Life-ways"
|Black Elk Speaks: Visions of the Other World
|Miantinomo, Acuera, and Tecumseh, Hatuey Speaks
|Chief Seattle Speaks
|Chief Red Cloud Speaks
|Hopi: A Message for All People
|"LET'S MAKE A SLAVE" by Willie Lynch
|On Indian Casinos
|¿Quién Gobierna el Mundo?
|Frida Kahlo is Not Our Hero!
|Links to Movies and Films
|General Links to Musica del Pueblo (Songs and Music Videos)
|General Philosophy & Mytho-Religious Links
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|Researchers Tools and Links
|Links to General Science, Almanacs & Geography
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|LINKS: AMERICA INDIGENA / MEXICO INDIGENA
|LINKS to Political and Cultural Pro-American-Indigenous Organizations
The Return of the Ancestor-God:
ON The Dance of the Voladores
[Note: instead of "ghost cult" I will say that it was an "ancestor
cult" as it still
Any discussion of Aztec revitalization should be kept within narrow
bounds until certain documents, still un-translated,
can be made
available to scholarship. But the few remarks here offered would not
be complete without at least a brief
description of the
mysterious "volador" dance, popular in the sixteenth century and
still being reported from various
parts of Mexico and Guatemala.
Allowing for minor variations and despite the fact that present-day
to have forgotten its original meaning, the dance
remains essentially unchanged and remarkably uniform throughout the
area of its distribution.
Wearing bird costumes, the Voladores, or "fliers", cluster on a small
platform near the
top of a pole. Ropes wound around the pole pass
through grooves in the platform and are tied to the dancer's bodies.
signal they find themselves backward into the air, and the
platform begins to rotate. As the ropes unwind, the dancers
whirling downward in continually widening circles until they reach
the ground. In some cases they hang upside down
and spread their
arms. While the "birds" are in flight, a performer standing at the
top of the pole plays a trumpet
or some other instrument [flute].
Readers acquainted with the `Cantares Mexicanos' will not fail to be
of phrases such as the following (identified by folio and
I blow my conch for turquoise swans (26:
And they shall appear (26: 21)
Let's have these turquoise-swanlike flowers! These are trogons that
For a moment they come whirling, they the Eagles (65: 6)
Roseate swans, cornsilk flowers, are whirling (70:
Moteuczomatzin spreads his arms! (15v: 12)
These nobles are bright as trogons. They are flying along like
And they come, come, and come dancing (47v: 20)
A quetzal has descended, a cotinga arrives (39: 11)
fact, the connection between ghost songs and volador dances is
reasonably well attested. According to the Anales de Juan
a "water flower-people piece" (axochitlacayotl) was sung and danced
in 1566 in a refectory in Mexico City
and repeated outdoors with
a "volador." Chimalpain reports that a "fish song" (Michcuicatl) was
performed in 1593 in
the Plaza del "Volador", and the chronicler
Perez de Ribas notes that the "Volador", or "Volatines," was
with the "tocontin", a seventeenth-century
successor to the ghost-song ritual.
In a much-quoted passage borrowed
from Sahagun, the historian
Torquemada attempts to explain the "volador" as a calendrical ritual
in which the unwinding
of the ropes produces exactly 52 revolutions,
representing the 52 years of the Aztec calendar round. But whether
not this was a feature of certain 16th century "volador"
performances, it hardly serves as a sufficient explanation. More
is the early 20th century analysis of Walter Krickberg,
who (without any reference to or apparent study of the "Cantares
saw the descending "voladores" as ghosts returning to
earth from their celestial paradise. (Emphasis, mine)
of pre-Columbian origin, the "volador" survived the
Conquest as a bravura piece that required no further justification
the eyes of Spanish officials. Some, perhaps, were satisfied by the
innocuous calendrical explanation passed along
by Sahagun and
Torquemada. But from time to time suspicious were aroused, and on
more than one occasion the "volador"
was actually banned. Whatever
the dance's political or cultural significance before the invasion,
we may reasonably
surmise that during the sixteenth century it became
an instrument of revitalization.
Whether any surviving ghost-song
text has the flier dance as its
program or indeed whether ghost songs were performed simultaneously
with such dances
is not known. More likely the two rituals were
performed in sequence, as suggested by Perez de Ribas. Despite this
it is hardly surprising that the intricately cerebral
song recitals died out, while the athletic "volador" still flourishes
scattered locations throughout the length and breadth of the old
empire—from Mexico City east to Veracruz and south
Probably these provincial "voladores" were never accompanied by texts
even remotely resembling the "Cantares."
… In the "Cantares",
nevertheless, we have the supreme literary expression of a far-flung
ghost cult, which, though
its symbolism may have varied over the
centuries, continues to serve as a reminder of Mexico's past and as
one means of keeping alive, if not revitalizing, its native
[The verb "netloca" (to believe) in the
Cantares it signifies
adherence to the ghost (ancestor) song doctrine.]
trans., Cantares Mexicanos: Songs of the Aztecs,
Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1985.
The Cosmic Serpent:
DNA and the Origins of Knowledge
Narby, Jeremy (1999)
York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam
The Dance of the Voladores/ Photos
The Dance of the Voladores and Cantares Mexicanos:
In a much-quoted passage borrowed from Sahagun, the historian
attempts to explain the "volador" as a calendrical ritual in which the unwinding of the ropes produces exactly 52
the 52 years of the Aztec calendar round.
But whether or not this was a feature of certain 16th century "volador" performances,
it hardly serves as a sufficient explanation. More encompassing is the early 20th century analysis of Walter Krickberg, who
(without any reference to or apparent study of the "Cantares Mexicanos") saw the descending "voladores" as ghosts returning
to earth from their celestial paradise. (Emphasis, mine)
John Bierhorst, trans., Cantares Mexicanos: Songs of the
Aztecs, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1985
See photos of the dance of the Voladores from the Totonac (Papantla) region
Excellent photos of the 'Sacred Pole' and Voladores DANCERS from the Quiche Maya (Guatemala):
http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/popolvuh/pv-8.htm (scroll down)
I turn to Simplicity, I turn again to Purity!
¡De nican para tech quixtizque xtopa tech mictizque!
De aquí para poder sacarnos, primero tendrán que matarnos!
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I Heard Nothing! .... I Saw Nothing!
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