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There is no word for 'Devil' in the Nahuatl Language
Cultural Extremists
On the 'Nican Tlaca' Enigma
The Myth of the Vanishing Race
The Mestizo Concept: A Product of European Imperialism
El concepto de indio en América
OBITUARIES: G. Tantaquidgeon, 106
Christopher Columbus - on trial
Charioteer of the Gods/ Alien Versus Predator
The International Jew
On The Jewish Question
Anthropophagy: TRUE CANNIBALISM!
On Human Sacrifice
Sacrificios Humanos entre los Mexicas, Realidad o Fantasia?
Sacrificios Humanos
Death Be Not Strange
Jack D. Forbes: Eurocentric Concepts Harm Native People and What Do We Mean By America and American
Contra la deformación histórica-cultural
Nuestra Cultura Indígena
On the Spanish Catholic Inquisition
Myths of the Spaniards and Puritans
On the behavior of the Europeans toward the Native Americans
The Role of Disease in 'Conquest'
Germs, Plagues, Famine, Invasion, Friars, And Native Allies!
"Religious Aspects of the Conquest of Mexico"
There is no word for 'Devil' in the Nahuatl Language
Origins of First Americans Research
Links to Further research On the Origins of the First Americans
The Finding and Founding of Tenochtitlan
Attack on the Copernican Theory
Of the basis which the Indians have for worshipping the sun
ADDENDUM II: The Florentine Codex
Rabinal Achi: Act Four--Inside the Fortress
Cultural Visibility and the Cora
Los Voladores and the Return of the Ancestors
War Songs of the Tenochka
Cantares Mexicanos
Viva Mi General Francisco Villa!
In Spirit of Agustin Lorenzo
Corridos y Canciones del Pueblo
Poems & Speeches & Prayers & the Enemy Invasion
Second Chapter, Which Telleth of the Moon
Men Who Became Gods!
The Mexica or Mexiti
In Ixiptla In Teteo!
Teotecpillatolli: Noble Sacred Speech
Nahua Invocations
Cuento: La llorona
Puerta del Diablo: El Salvador
Moctezuma el Magnifico y la Invasion de Anahuak
In Blood and Fire!!
Excerpts of the Geneva Protocols
Amendment V, and The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 18
Paper Wars
The Defense of Duffer's Drift
The Battle of the Bulge
Truth and Falsehood in War-Time
The Bryce Report
Sun Tzu: Arte de Guerra
Sun Tzu: On Spies
We Believe and Profess
Mushashi: Cinco Anillos
Sixth Chapter, which telleth of the men, the valiant men
Seeds of Revolt in the Americas: Synopsis
'Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders' & 'License To Kill'
Jose Ortega Y Gasset: On Plato's 'Republic' and On Forms of Government
Thomas Paine (17371809). Common Sense. 1776 [Excerpts]
Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality
Introduction to Deloria's "We Talk, You Listen"
My Tayta Jose Maria and the Indian aspect of the Peruvian Revolution
Philip Deere, Longest Walk speech
Bacbi'awak: 'Made To Die'
Born Gods!
Prologue: "The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Life-ways"
Black Elk Speaks: Visions of the Other World
Miantinomo, Acuera, and Tecumseh, Hatuey Speaks
Chief Seattle Speaks
Chief Red Cloud Speaks
Hopi: A Message for All People
On Judeo-Christianity
"LET'S MAKE A SLAVE" by Willie Lynch
On Slavery
On Indian Casinos
¿Quién Gobierna el Mundo?
Frida Kahlo is Not Our Hero!
Links to Movies and Films
General Links to Musica del Pueblo (Songs and Music Videos)
General Philosophy & Mytho-Religious Links
Links to Online Magazines and Newspaper
Researchers Tools and Links
Links to General Science, Almanacs & Geography
Search Engines
Literature & Biography Links
Links to Art, Architecture, & Museums
LINKS to Political and Cultural Pro-American-Indigenous Organizations

1.-- Ofrendas. (1)  
Con que se hacian ofrendas: con alimentos y con mantas.  Se hacian ofrendas tambien con cualquier animalillo, bien sean guajolotes o pajaros; bien sea con mantas o cualquier cosa que se producia de nuevo; bien sea con mazorcas de maiz, o con chia, con flores, o con cualquier otra cosa.  Y en esta forma hacian la ofrenda:  a las mujercitas de madrugada las despertaban sus madres y padres para que fueran a hacer las ofrendas, llevando los dones en sus manos, tortillitas muy peque`nas.  Iban a hacer sus ofrenda temprano, delante del dios,(2) llevaban las ofrendas en cazuelas, en eso las ofrecian.  Solo en sus casas se hacian las tortillas con que las jovencitas hacian sus ofrendas.
1.  HG, T. I, ii, Apendice iii, 1-2 p. 242. HN, VIII, caput xxiii p. 146 (MH fol. 9 r.). 
El modo de citar la Historia General de las Cosas de la Nueva Espa'na por Fray Bernandino de Sahagun, (edicion preparada por A.M. Garibay K., 4 vols., Porrua Mexico, 1956), el es siguiente:  primero se indica el tomo; a continuacion el libro, con numeros romanos en minisculas; despues igualmente el numero del capitulo (o del apendice al libro, si lo tiene); luego, con cifras arabigas, el numero del parrafo y finalmente la pagina.
Respeto del Codice Florentino (CF), de la Historia General de las Cosas de la Nueva Espa`na (HG), de la Historia Naturae Maxime Peregrinae (HN) y del manuscrito inedito del Dr. Francisco Hernandez (MH). 
2.  El texto Nahuatl debido probablemente a las dificultades que tuvo que sufrir Sahagun, presenta una clara modificacion.  En vez de decir 'Delante del Dios' (Ixpan Teotl), dice 'Delante del Diablo' (Ixpan Diablo).  Recuerdense que en Real Cedula de 22 de Abril de 1577 Felipe II ordeno que se le recogieran a Sahagun todos sus textos y escritos 'por tocar a supersticiones y modo de vivir de estos indios.'  Parece pues indicio de la prudencia de Sagagun el haber impuesto a los escribanos indigenas la modificacion a que se esta aqui aludiendo. 
Auh inic mochihuaia tlenamaquiliztli: yn ica tlemaitl, zoquitl tlachivalli calcalacho.  Uncan contemaia in tlexochtli, in tlemaco yc conxopiloaya in tlexochtli, yn ocoxupiloque tlexochtli, niman ic contemancopalli yc valquiza in IXPAN DIABLO, anozo yn ithvalnepantla yn vncan icac tlequaztli zuquitl tlachichivalli.  Aun yn omoquetzaco IXPAN DIABLO, niman nauhcampa quiyava intlemaitl, inic tlapopochvia.   ...  [Emphasis, mine]
2.--  Ofrenda de fuego.  Y como se hacia la ofrenda de fuego:  con un sahumador hecho de barro, con sonajas.  Alli colocaban brasas, en el sahumador apoyaban las brasas, cuando ya las apoyaron, enseguida colocan copal, y vienen a salir ante la figura del dios, o en medio del patio donde estan los braseros hechos de barro.  Y cuando venian a estar ante la figura del dios, entonces hacia los cuatro rumbos (del universo) ofrecian el sahumador, con lo cual va este humeando.  ... 

The following is taken from an essay entitled:
The Popol Vuh
The Mythic and Heroic Sagas of the Kichés of Central America
Lewis Spence@:
http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/pvuheng.htm :

And I quote:
[1. In the Mexican text the Spanish word "diablo" has been
interpolated by the Mexican scribes, as no Mexican word for "devil"
exists. The scribe was, of course, under priestly influence; hence
the "diablo."]


We are here engaged with the problem which the origin of man
presented to the Kiché mind, and we shall find that its solution
bears a remarkable likeness to that of similar American myths. We
seldom hear of one first-created being. In the creation-myths of the
New World four brothers are usually the progenitors of the human
race. Man in these myths is nearly always earth-born. He and his
fellows emerge from some cavern or subterranean place, fully grown
and fully armed. Thus the Blackfoot Indians emerged from Nina-stahu,
a peak in the Rockies. In the centre of Nunne Chaba, the High Hill,
was a cavern, the house of the Master of Breath, whence came the
Choctaws. The Peruvians came from Pacari Tambu, the House of the
Dawn, near Cuzco, and an ancient legend of the Aztecâ states that
they came from

[1. J. W. Fewkes in Jour. Amer. Folk-lore, 1892, p. 33; F. H. Cushing
in "Amer. Anthropologist," 1892, p. 308 et seq.]

{p. 259}

Chicomoztoc, the Seven Caverns, to, the north of Mexico.

We find the first Mayan men speedily engaged in migration. Such must
always be the life of the unsettled and unagricultural savage. He
multiplies. Gods are given to each tribe. These he bears to a new
country. In fact we have a complete migration myth in the Third Book
of the "Popol Vuh," and there are not wanting signs to show that this
migration took place from the cold north to the warm south. The
principal item of proof in favour of such a theory is, of course, the
statement that the sun was "not at first born," and that at a later
stage of the journey, when his beams appeared upon the horizon, it
was as a weaker and dimmer luminary that be seemed to the wanderers
than in after years. The allusion to "shining sand," by the aid of
which they crossed rivers, may mean that they forded them when
covered with ice. The whole myth is so strikingly akin to the Aztecân
migration-myth given in the Mexican MS. in the Boturini Collection
(No. 14, see. viii.) that we cannot refrain from appending a short
passage from the latter:

"This is the beginning of the record of the coming of the Mexicans
from the place called Aztlan. It is by means of the water that they
came this way, being four tribes, and in coming they rowed in boats.
They built their huts on

{p. 260}

piles at the place called the Grotto of Quinevayan. It is there from
which the eight tribes issued. The first tribe is that of the
Huexotzincos, the second tribe the Chalcas, the third the
Xochimilcas, the fourth the Cuitlavacas, the fifth the Mallinalcas,
the sixth the Chicimecas, the seventh the Tepanecas, the eighth the
Matlatzincas. It is there where they were founded in Colhuacan. They
were the colonists of it since they landed there, coming from
Aztlan. . . . It is there that they soon afterwards went away from,
carrying before them the god[1] Vitzillopochtli, which they had
adopted for their god. . . . They came out of four places, when they
went forward travelling this way. . . . There the eight tribes opened
up our road by water."

We find a similar myth in the Wallam Olum, or painted records of the
Lenape Indians. "After the flood," says this record, "the Lenape with
the manly turtle beings dwelt close together at the cave house and
dwelling of Talli. . . . They saw that the snake land was bright and
wealthy. Having all agreed, they went over the water of the frozen
sea to possess the land. It was wonderful when they all went over the
smooth deep water of

[1. In the Mexican text the Spanish word "diablo" has been
interpolated by the Mexican scribes, as no Mexican word for "devil"
exists. The scribe was, of course, under priestly influence; hence
the "diablo."]


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